Derm1- FAD

  1. __________ is the most common ectoparasitic condition of dogs and cats in the USA; the most important species is ____________.
    Flea infestation; Ctenocephalides felis felis (called cat flea but is found on both cats and dogs)
  2. Describe the life cycle of C. felis.
    eggs laid on host and fall off into environment--> eggs larvate in environment (free-living)--> larvae burrow down into carpet/dirt and molt twice--> after second molt, pupal stage--> produces silk-like cocoon, where it stays until proper stimulation--> adult flea hatches when its on a host
  3. What type of environment is hospitable for C. felis larvae?
    moist, dark environment (very susceptible to heat and desiccation)
  4. What stimulations are required in order for a C. felis pupa to hatch? Why?
    physical pressure, CO2, heat; b/c it wants to ensure that it is on a living host before it hatches
  5. What is the only life stage of C. felis that is not affected by flea treatment?
  6. How long are the different stages of the C. felis life cycle?
    • Flea egg- 1-10 days
    • Larvae- 5-11 days
    • Pupa- up to 140 days if no stimulation
    • Adult flea- up to 100 days
  7. Why do you have to retreat for fleas after 2 weeks?
    because pupae are not susceptible to flea treatments, so when pupae hatch, you must retreat
  8. Why do some animals with fleas get FAD and some don't?
    depends on a hypersensitivity reaction to flea saliva (some are more sensitive than others)
  9. What primary lesions are associated with canine FAD? (1)
    papules (can be primary lesion of ANY parasitic dz)
  10. What are clinical signs of canine FAD? (8)
    papules, crusts, VERY PRURITIC, self-inflicted excoriations, alopecia, lichenification, and scaling, hot spots in pants region
  11. What regions are usually affected with canine FAD? (4) What is one area that is usually spared?
    • affected: dorsal lumbosacral, caudomedial thighs, ventral abdomen, flanks [pants region]
    • spared: head/face
  12. __________ is a common secondary disorders associated with canine FAD; unique to GSDs, __________ are common.
    Superficial bacterial folliculitis (epidermal collarettes, excoriations, crusts); deep bacterial infections (nodules, draining tracts)
  13. Clinical signs of feline FAD.
    pants region cutaneous reaction pattern, non-inflammatory alopecia by self-trauma, miliary dermatitis, head and neck pruritus (contrast to dog), no excoriations, eosinophilic granuloma complex
  14. How do you diagnose FAD? (5)
    [you DO NOT have to find a flea/flea dirt!!] history and PE, r/o other diseases, response to therapy (adulticide), +/- fleas/flea dirt, +/- evidence of tapeworms
  15. Complete resolution of lesions with adulticide flea treatment = ____________; partial resolution = ____________.
    FAD; FAD with concurrent problem
  16. What is the best way we diagnose FAD?
    therapeutic trial with flea adulticide
  17. What mechanical measures should be taken when trying to control FAD in pets? (3)
    vacuum cleaning/steam cleaning carpets, launder pets' bedding, remove organic debris
  18. What types of environmental flea controls are there? (2)
    ovicidal (prevent egg from hatching) and larvicidal (prevent larval development)
  19. What types of flea controls are available for animal treatment? (3)
    adulticide (at a minimum), ovicidal (eggs laid on host), combinations
  20. Products that inhibit the development of the immature stages; larvae cannot pupate, ovicidal; NOT adulticidal.
    insect growth regulators (methoprene, pyriproxyfen)
  21. What are 2 active ingredients are used in insect growth regulators?
    Pyriproxyfen (UV stable), Methoprene (inactivated in UV)
  22. What is Lufenuron mechanism, and what is it used for?
    inset development inhibitor- inhibits development of chitin; environmental flea control
  23. How is Lufenuron administered?
    orally with a meal every 30 days, started well before flea season
  24. Is Lufenuron effective for treatment of FAD?
    no (not unless used with an adulticide)
  25. What parasites does Lufenuron target? (2)
    flea egg, flea larva
  26. What is milbemycin useful for? (4)
    heartworm, hookworm, roundworm, whipworm
  27. Of products containing Lufeneron, Program, Sentinel, and Sentinel Spectrum, which is safe for cats?
  28. How do adulticides work to control FAD? (3)
    reduce egg production, larval emergence, and flea numbers
  29. Are adulticides able to kill fleas before they feed?
  30. Are Pyrethrins safe for use in felines? Are they safe for young animals?
    yes and yes!! (low mammalian toxicity)
  31. What are Pyrethrins used for?
    flea adulticide
  32. How are synthetic Pyrethroids different from Pyrethrins?
    • Pyrethrins: are derived from Crysanthemum- VERY safe
    • Pytrethroids: are more stable and have higher potency, but are more likely to be toxic to cats, also work against ticks
  33. What are synthetic Pyrethroids used for? (2)
    flea and tick adulticide
  34. Which are the only synthetic pyrethroids are safe for cats? (2)
    flumethrin, etofenprox
  35. What are some synthetic pyrethroids? (6)
    permethrin, tetramethrin, sumithrin, fluethrin, cyphenothrin, etofenprox
  36. What is Imidacloprid used for? (2)
    flea adulticide, flea larvicide
  37. What is Pyriproxifen used for?
    insect growth regulator: stops flea eggs from developing
  38. Of the compounds containing Imidacloprid (Advantage II, K-9 Advantix II, Advantage Multi, Seresto Collar), which are safe for use on cats?
    Advantage II, Seresto Collar, Advantage Multi
  39. What is Moxidectin used for?
    anthelmintic (macrocyclic lactone)- heartworms, hookworms, roundworms, whipworms [dog formula]
  40. How is Imidacloprid distributed throughout the body?
    no systemic absorption- translocated over body
  41. How is Fipronil slow release?
    not systemically absorbed- concentrates in sebaceous glands
  42. What is Fipronil used for?
    adult fleas, flea larvae, ticks
  43. Of the available compounds containing fipronil (Frontline spray, Frontline Plus, Frontlike Tritak, Certifect, Parastar, ParastarPlus, EasySpot, Effitix, Effipro), which are not safe for cats (ie. or don't have a cat formula)?
    Certifect, Parastar (EasySpot is the cat version), ParastarPlus, Effitix (Effipro is the cat version)
  44. What is s-methoprene used for?
    insect growth regulator- flea eggs
  45. What is amitraz useful for?
    detach/repel ticks
  46. Is amitraz safe for cats?
    not at higher doses
  47. What is a rare adverse side effect of Certifect (Fipronil, s-methoprene, amitraz)?
    pemphigus foliaceus-like drug reaction
  48. What is selamectin used for? (9)
    flea larvicidal, flea ovicidal, flea adulticidal, heartworms, ear mites, [dogs] sarcoptic mange and ticks, [cats] hookworm and roundworm
  49. How is selamectin distributed throughout the body?
    transdermally absorbed, circulates in bloodstream, contcentrates in sebaceous glands
  50. What is nitenpyram used for?
    flea adulticide
  51. How is nitenpyram used?
    oral- but not long lasting (eliminated form body within 24 hours [capstar])
  52. What is metaflumizone used for?
    flea adulticide, flea ovicide in dogs [OFF MARKET- PROMERIS]
  53. What is Dinotefuran used for? (1)
    flea adulticide
  54. Of the products containing dinotefuran (Vectra 3D, Vectra), which are safe for cats?
    Vectra cat formula
  55. What rare adverse effect is associated with Vectra 3D?
    pemphigus folecaious-like reaction in dogs
  56. What is spinosad? How is is different from spinetoram?
    • spinosad: insecticide produced from natural products
    • spinetoram: similar but partially synthetic
  57. What is spinosad used for? (2)
    [comfortis] flea adulticide, flea ovicide
  58. How is spinosad [Comfortis] administered?
    orally WITH FOOD; if pet vomits within an hour, must redose
  59. What is spinetoram used for? (1)
    flea adulticide
  60. What is indoxacarb used for? (2)
    flea adulticide, flea larvicide
  61. What is afoxolaner used for? (2)
    flea adulticide, tick
  62. Is afoxolaner safe for cats?
  63. What is fluralaner used for? (2)
    flea adulticide, ticks
  64. What is the age/weight restriction for fluralaner?
    dogs must be 6 months or older/ greater than or equal to 4.4 pounds
  65. Is fluralaner safe for cats?
  66. How is fluralaner administered?
    orally WITH FOOD
  67. How do you decrease the liklihood of development of resistance?
    combination of IDI/IGR and adulticide--> disrupt life cycle at different points
  68. Flea control strategies. (4)
    treat all in-contact animals, spot treat environment, topical steroids for pruritus (shampoo, leave-on conditioners, sprays), systemic steroids (if topicals don't do it)
Card Set
Derm1- FAD
vetmed derm1