Chapter 5--Where People Live

  1. Kurt Lewin's formula for behavior
    Developmental trends in psychometric intelligence: B= f(P,E)

    • B= behavior
    • P= person
    • E= environment

    Objective aspects of environment as well as personal choice are important
  2. Competence
    • the theoretical upper limit of a person's capacity to function; ability to accomplish something
    • --> physical health, sensory-perceptual skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and ego strength
  3. Environmental press
    environments can be classified on the basis of the varying demands they place on the person called this
  4. Adaptation level
    where behavior and affect are normal

    Competence and environmental press are at a helathy mix; you can function appropriately and the environment isn't putting much strain on you
  5. Zone of maximum performance potential
    If someone isn't meeting the potential but has the ability to, slight increases in press improve their performance. AKA: you push them to meet the potential
  6. Zone of Maximum comfort
    if you push too hard

    slight decreases creates this

    live happily without societal demands
  7. Too many demands on __ and too few demands on __= __
    low competence

    high competence

    poor fit
  8. Kahana's preventative and corrective proactivity model (PCP)
    explains how life stressors and lack of good congruence in person-environment interactions results in poor life outcomes
  9. Two types of proactive adaptations (PCP model)
    preventative adaptations

    corrective adaptations
  10. preventative
    actions that avoid stressors and increase or build social resources
  11. corrective adaptations
    actions taken in response to stressors and can be facilitated by internal and external resources
  12. Older adults engage more in __.
    coorective adaptations

    They have a mentality of "I used to be able to do this" and so attempt to do it as usual until something goes wrong
  13. In order for you to live a good life accoding to the PCP model, ?
    you're constantly going between preventative and corrective
  14. Evaluating one's situation and surroundings for potential threat value allows three discernments. What are they?
    • harmful
    • beneficial
    • irrelevant
  15. everyday competence

    If you can't perform tasks,...
    a person's potential ability to perform a wide range of activities considered essential for independent living

    mortality is close
  16. ecology of aging
    • environmental psych;
    • seeks to understand the dynamic relations between older adults and the environments they inhabit
  17. Agining in place
    balancing environmental press and competence through selection and compensation

    • Importatn for self-esteem
    • strong emotional ties to home--can be traumatic
    • sense of belonging is key
  18. How does a place become a home?
  19. Deciding on the best option
    does the individual have significant cognitive or physical impairment requiring intervention

    the individual needs to be part of the decision making

    get a physician's diagnsotic evaluation

    open, honest communication
  20. home modifications
    hellping people deal with tasks of daily living by modifiying the enviroment

    some are minor; others are expensive

    all about "fit"

    emergiing ADU dwellings, such as granny pods
  21. Adult day care
    designed to provide support, companionship , and certain services during the day

    God is to delay plaement of more formal care setting
  22. Three types of adult day care
    social services, meals, recreation, and minor health care

    more intensive health care, therapy, for serious medical problems

    Specialized care for dementia or developmental disabilities

    Profit < non-profit
  23. Congregate housing
    apartment complex for olde adults (shared meals/ affordable)

    differs from assisted living in levels of service

    least expensive--cost subsidized

    residents must be capable of independent living and not require continual med care, kow were they are and oriented to time, no evidence of disruptive behavior, able to make independent decisions, be able to follow specific service plans
  24. Assisted living
    a supportive living arrangment for people who need assistance with personal care but are not physically or mentally impaired to requrie 24-hour care
  25. Assisted living has three essential atttributes
    • as much like a single family house as possible
    • emphasizes personal control, choice, dignity,and autonomy
    • should meet routine services and special neesd
  26. What are some other characteristics of assisted living
    1) utilize checklist to ensure the selected facility meets the specific requirements of the individual

    • 2) Costs average about 35K a year
    • 3) Not offset by Medicare
    • 4) medicaid may subsuize if individual's finalce situation melts
    • Government assistance expexted to be limited to the future
    • independed apartments of similar units
  27. Who is likely to live in a nursing home
    over age eighty five


    recently admitted to hospital

    lives in retirement housing rather than being a homowner

    WIdowed or divorcedĀ 

    Has no kids or siblings nearby

    Has some cognitive impairment

    Has one or more problems with IADL
  28. The average resident has significant __ and __ problems.

    Reasons for going into a nursing home
    mental and physical

    • 80%= mental or physical probleĀ 
    • 1/3= mobility, eating, incontinence
    • 30-50% for clinical depression
  29. The competence-environmental press model for nursing homes
    goal is to find the optimal level of environment support for people of low levels of competence

    Quality of Life, Quality of Care, Safety, Other

    Person centered

    Perceived level of personal control
  30. special care unit
    must have the right level of environmental support to provide additional care when the person's competence level continues to decline

    memory aids shoud be built into the unit

    special care for severely cognitively impaired residents

    staff with specific training-- research based staff training
  31. How not to communicate with nursing home residents
    patronizing speech

    infantilization or elderspeach
  32. Patronizing speech
    based on stereotypes of incompetence and dependence

    slower, exaggerted intonation, higher pitch, increased volume, etc

    secondary baby talk
  33. infantilization or elderspeak
    inappropriate use of first names

    terms of endearment--honey/ sweetie

    assumption of greater impairment than may be the case

    cajoling to demand compliance
  34. What is the relationship between staff and residential satisfaction?

    if the staff are happy, then that means the residents are happy

    staff satisfaction leads to resident satisfaction as they have staff care and social interaction etc.
  35. Reasons
Card Set
Chapter 5--Where People Live