Psychology Exam 1

  1. Biopsychosocial Persepective
    • Biological
    • Psychological
    • Sociocultural
  2. Biopsychosocial Persepective-Biological
    • physiological factors
    • genetics
    • ex-plaques/tangles
  3. Biopsychosocial Persepective-Pschological
    • cognition
    • emotions
    • personality
    • ex-language tip of the tongues
  4. Biopsychosocial Persepective-Sociocultural
    • social context
    • history
    • culture
    • ex-dutch hunger winters
  5. Four Principals of Adult Development and Aging
    • changes are continuous over the life span
    • only the survivors grow old
    • individuality matters
    • normal aging is different from disease
  6. Changes are continuous over lifespan
    individuals remain the same even though they change
  7. Only survivors grow old
    aging indivduals are increasingly self selected
  8. Individuality Matters
    people vary within and between age groups
  9. Normal aging is different from disease
    intrinsic aging process are different from those associated with illness
  10. Divisions of 65+ population
    • young-old 65-74
    • old-old 75-84
    • oldest-old 85+
  11. Ways to define age
    • functional age
    • biological age
    • psychological age
    • social age
  12. Functional Age
    how people actually perform
  13. Biological age
    • age of bodily systems
    • heart rate, blood pressure, bone strength
  14. Psychological Age
    reaction time, learning ability, memory, intelligence
  15. Social Age
    social roles, parental, grandparental status, work role, retirement
  16. Types of developmental influences
    • normative age-graded
    • normative history graded
    • nonnormative
  17. Normative age-graded
    cultural norms
  18. Normative history graded
    events that affect everyone
  19. Nonnormative
    • random events
    • idiosyncratic
  20. Social Factors in Aging
    • sex and gender
    • race
    • ethnicity
    • socioeconomic status
    • religion
  21. Changing demographics in US and around world
    increase in amount of adults 65 and older
  22. Ecological Perspective
    • multiple levels of the environment as they affect the individuals
    • multiple systems interact to influence development
  23. Life Course Perspective
    norms, roles and attitudes about age have an impact on the shape of each person’s life
  24. Impact of Ageism
    • not just for older adults but most often aimed at them
    • assumption that all members of a group behave or act in the same way
  25. Eriksons theory
    proposed that certain points in life a persons biological, psychological and social changes come together to influence our personality defining each stage of development as a crisis or turning point
  26. SOC Selective Optimization Compensation
    • choose areas of focus
    • maximize performance in these areas
    • make up for losses in one area with gains in other
  27. Identity accommodation
    people make changes in their identities in response to experiences that challenge their current view of themselves
  28. Identity Assimilation
    the tendency to interpret new experiences in terms of a person’s existing identity
  29. Identity Balance
    • the dynamic equilibrium that occurs when people tend to view themselves consistently but can make changes when called for by their experiences
    • Piaget Schema Accommodation
    • when you change your schemas in response to new information about the world you are
  30. Piaget Schema Assimilation
    people use their existing schemas as a way to understand the world around them
  31. Programmed Aging Theories
    propose that aging and death are built into the hard wiring of all organisms and therefore are part of the genetic code
  32. Random Error Theories
    are based on the assumption that aging reflects unplanned changes in an organism over time
  33. Caloric Restriction Hypothesis
    the view the key to prolonging life is to restrict calorie intake because it is thought to have beneficial impact because it reduces formation of free radicals.
  34. Independent Variable
    in an experimental study the factor that the experimentor manipulates
  35. Dependent Variable
    in an experimental study the factor that the experimenter observes
  36. Age as a variable
    age isn’t a true independent variable because it can not be manipulated
  37. Cohort
    • years of a persons birth
    • influences relative to history at time of birth
  38. Age
    • how many years the person has lived
    • change within individual
  39. Longitudinal design
    study of changes across ages in one cohort at a time
  40. Cross-sectional Design
    study of cohort differences at one time of measurement
  41. Sequential Design
    study consist of different combinations of the variable age, cohort, and time of measurement
  42. Correlational Design
    • shows extent of relationship between two variables
    • can be negative or positive
    • strength is indicated by how close it is to 1 or -1
    • no ability to detect causality
  43. Types of Studies
    • laboratory
    • qualitative
    • archival
    • survey
    • epidemiology
  44. Ethics in adult research
    • need to obtain full informed consent
    • and have a debriefing after completion of study
Card Set
Psychology Exam 1
Chapters 1 2 and 3