1. What is the key symptom of cutaneous anthrax?
    a depressed black eschar
  2. What is the fatality rate for untreated cutaneous anthrax?
  3. When do the fatal symptoms of inhalation anthrax typically present?
    3-5 days
  4. What are some fatal symptoms of inhalation anthrax?
    acute respiratory distress, mediastinal widening, fever and shock
  5. What are the 4 types of anthrax discussed in the CCDM?
    Cutaneous, inhalation, intestinal, oropharyngeal
  6. What is the bacteria that causes anthrax?
    Bacillus anthracis
  7. What are some characteristics of Bacillus anthracis?
    Gram-positive, encapsulated, spore-forming, non-motile rod
  8. What is the primary reservoir of anthrax?
  9. How is anthrax typically transmitted?
    contact with infected animal tissue, biting flies that have recently fed on infected animal tissue, contact with soil associated with infected animals
  10. What is the typical incubation period for anthrax?
    1-7 days (as many as 60 days documented)
  11. What is the preferred method of disposing of infected animals?
    incineration at the site of death
  12. What is the drug of choice for treating anthrax?
    Penicillin for 5-7 days
  13. Besides penicillin, what are some other antibiotics that are used to treat anthrax?
    Tetracycline, erythromycin, chlormphenicol
  14. What does the US military recommend for inhalation anthrax treatment?
    cutaneous ciprofloxacin or doxycycline
  15. What is the drug of choice for people exposed to a deliberate aerosolized anthrax attack?
    fluoroquinolones, doxycycline is an alternate
  16. What is the characteristic symptom of cholera?
    sudden, profuse, painless watery stools (rice water stools)
  17. What is the fatality rate for untreated cholera gravis?
  18. What organisms cause cholera?
    Vibrio cholera serogroups O1 and O139
  19. What is the main cause of cholera?
    drinking unsafe water and poor sanitation
  20. What is the incubation period of cholera?
    a few hours to 5 days, usually 2-3 days
  21. What drugs are used as chemoprophylaxis for people in contact with a cholera victim?
    500mg Tetracycline QID for 3 days or 300mg doxycycline in a single dose
  22. What is the most important aspect of treating cholera?
    timely and adequate rehydration
  23. How long and at what temperature should leftover food be reheated to prevent cholera?
    158 F or 70 C for 15 minutes
  24. The cause of non-O1/O139 gastroenteritis is typically eating what?
    Undercooked or raw seafood
  25. Vibrio vulnificus is most fatal to people with what other conditions?
    chronic liver disease, chronic alcoholism, hemochromatosis, or those who are immunosuppressed.
  26. What are the characteristic symptoms of mumps?
    fever, swelling of the salivary glands (usually the parotid), unilateral orchitis in 20-30% of male patients.
  27. What are the peak seasons for mumps?
    winter and spring
  28. What disease is a major cause of viral encephalitis?
  29. What is the main mode of transmission of the mumps virus?
    airborne droplets
  30. What virus causes mumps?
  31. At what age do people typically get their first MMR vaccine?
    12-18 months
  32. What organism is responsible for scabies?
    Sarcoptes scabiei
  33. How quickly can a scabies mite burrow into skin?
    2.5 minutes
  34. What is the treatment of choice for scabies?
    5% topical permethrin
  35. What is schistosomiasis also known as?
    Blood fluke or trematode
  36. Where do schistosomiasis worms typically live in the body?
    The mesenteric or vesical veins
  37. What are the late complications from schistosomiasis infection?
    • -liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, colorectal malignancy for intestinal forms
    • -obstructive uropathy, bacterial infection, infertility, bladder cancer in urinary forms
  38. What are the 3 main organisms responsible for schistosomiasis?
    • Schistosoma mansoni - intestinal
    • S. haematobium - urinary
    • S. japonicum - intestinal
  39. How is schistosomiasis transmitted?
    water containing free-swimming larvae that developed in snails
  40. How long is the incubation for schistosomiasis?
    2-6 weeks
  41. What is the drug of choice when treating schistosomiasis?
    Praziquentel 40mg/kg of body weight (S. japonicum can be 60mg/kg BW)
  42. When was the last natural smallpox case documented?
    October 1977 in Somalia
  43. When does a rash begin to develop with smallpox?
    after 2-4 days of initial presentaion
  44. How long does a smallpox rash stay on the individual?
    3-4 weeks
  45. What is the order of smallpox rash progression?
    macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, scabs
  46. What is the organism that causes smallpox?
    Variola virus
  47. What is the immunizing agent used to control smallpox?
    Vaccinia virus
  48. What disease is similar to smallpox but has more prominent lymphadenopathy?
    Human monkeypox
  49. What is the fatality rate of variola major?
    20-50% in unvaccinated populations
  50. What organization should be notified immediately if smallpox infection is suspected?
    World Health Organization (WHO)
Card Set
March 16 HM1 Bib CCDM topics