- their genome is surrounded by _____ layers
- A core envelope studded with ____ proteins
- An _____ membrane
- Also contain a large number of ______ proteins.
Viral genomes can be:
- ____ or ____
- ____ or ______
- _____ or _____
- DNA, RNA
- Single-, double-stranded (ss or ds)
- Linear, circular (linear is more common)
Name 3 things that the viral genome may code for:
2. Envelope proteins
3. Any polymerase not found in the host cell
A classification system for viruses created by the ICTV is based on several criteria:
- _____ composition
- Capsid _______
- _____ of the virion
- ______ range
Name the famous person:
- In 1971, proposed the primary distinctions among classes of viruses be:
- genome composition (RNA or DNA)
- route used to express mRNA
- shared 1975 Nobel Prize for work in retroviruses
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: double-stranded DNA
- uses its own or host DNA polymerases for replication
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: single-stranded DNA
- Required DNA polymerase to generate a complementary strand
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: double-stranded RNA
- Requires RNA-dpeendent RNA polymerase to make mRNA and genomic RNA
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: (+) single-stranded RNA
- Requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to make a template for mRNA and genome replication
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: (-) single-stranded RNA
- Requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to make mRNA and replicate its genome
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: RNA retroviruses
- packages its own reverse transcriptase to make dsDNA
Which of the 7 fundamental groups of viral species is this: DNA pararetroviruses
Definition: Genes of common ancestry in two genomes that share the same function.
A ____ ____ ____ is a DNA sequence that can express a recombinant gene in an animal or plant cell.
gene transfer vector
The viruses used as gene transfer vectors are those whose replicative cycles establish a viral genome within the _____ _____.
Some of the first viral vectors were made from double-stranded DNA viruses such as _______.
An exciting class of gene transfer vectors are derived from _____, such as the lentivirus HIV
- Lentiviral vectors or tentivectors
In general, gene therapy is approved only for conditions that are ___-_____ and for which alternative therapies are ______.
Safety features of viral vectors include:
- _______ virulence genes
- avoiding genome ______ next to oncogene
- altering tissue _____
- _____ germ-line infection
A virus is a noncellular particle that can reproduce only within a ______ ____.
A complete viral particle is called a _____, and is composed of a nucleic acid genome, surrounded by a protein _____.
Viruses can be divided into two main types:
symmetrical and asymmetrical
The Baltimore system classifies viruses mainly on their means of:
Viruses have been used for ___ ____.
Examples: Lentiviruses and adenoviruses