Resp2- Resp Path Patterns

  1. Lung tissue color on necropsy depends upon the relative amounts of... (4)
    lung tissue (white), other tissues/cells (white), blood (red), air (translucent)
  2. Darker than normal color of lung tissue can means... (2)
    relatively more blood (congestion) or less air (atelectasis)
  3. Ligher than normal color of lung tissue can mean... (4)
    relatively more air, clear fluid (edema), less blood (anemia), more cells (exudate, hyperplasia, neoplasia)
  4. What is the most important aspect of examining lungs on necropsy?
    distribution of lesions
  5. What does the anterior-ventral (cranio-ventral) pattern suggest? (5 important points)
    airborne pathogenesis--> bronchopneumonia; usually consolidation (firm consistency), well-demarcated boundary; dark early (hyperemia with early inflammation), light late (neutrophils and other WBCs arrive to fight infection)
  6. What type of pattern indicates bronchopneumonia?
    anterior-ventral pattern
  7. What does the hilar pattern suggest? (6 important points)
    vascular pathogenesis--> interstitial pneumonia; semicircular around hilus, may be firmer/denser than normal; dark due to congestion; poorly demarcated boundary
  8. What type of patterns suggest vascular pathogenesis?
    hilar pattern, diffuse pattern, milliary pattern, sometimes focal pattern
  9. What type of pattern suggests airborne transmission?
    anterior-ventral pattern, sometimes focal pattern
  10. What type of pattern indicates interstitial pneumonia?
    hilar pattern
  11. What etiologies are usually associated with a hilar pattern? (2)
    viral or pulmonary edema
  12. What does diffuse pattern suggest? (5 important points)
    vascular pathogenesis --> extension of hilar pattern w/ minimal or no normal; congestion (dark), edema (wet), dense
  13. What does a milliary pattern suggest? (3 important points)
    embolic shower from bacterial infection or neoplastic disease; dark red (hemorrhage, endothelial damage, DIC, coagulopathy) OR light (necrosis, inflammation)
  14. What are the major etiologies of milliary pattern? (2 big, 2 less common)
    bacteremia (emboli), neoplasia (metastatic tumors) [much less commonly- coagulopathy, multifocal necrosis]
  15. What does a dark focal pattern indicate? (5)
    hemorrhage, infarct, atelectasis, pigment, neoplasm
  16. What does a light focal pattern indicate? (3)
    abscess, granuloma, neoplasm
  17. What type of pathogenesis does focal pattern suggest?
    airborne or vascular [if vascular, look at other organs to see if the infection had spread from somewhere else in the body]
  18. What are the 2 types of multifocal pattern and what does each suggest?
    • uniform multifocal- lesions occurred at the same time- hemorrhage, necrosis, emboli
    • nonuniform multifocal- lesions are different ages- abscesses or neoplasms with different growth rates
  19. How do primary metastatic lung tumors usually appear?
    single large focus (primary tumor)--> grows and eventually sends out mets--> one large primary tumor surrounded by smaller foci (mets)
  20. What causes a smaller lung size?
    atelectasis (compressive atelectasis- fluid or air in pleural cavity compressing lungs)
  21. What causes larger than normal lung size? (2)
    emphysema, interstitial pneumonia
  22. How can you tell lungs were smaller than normal size on necropsy? (2)
    dense, wrinkled pleura
  23. How can you tell lungs were larger than normal on necropsy? (4)
    light color, light weight, don't collapse, rib impressions
  24. What can cause heavier than normal lungs? (4)
    congestion/hemorrhage, hyperplasia/neoplasia, inflammatory exudate, edema
  25. What should the consistency of lung be?
    crepitance (air filled)
  26. What does structural integrity versus no structural integrity indicate?
    • structural integrity= not spreadable= viable organized tissue= neoplasia
    • no structural integrity= loose cells, debris= necrosis, exudate
  27. What does a raised contour indicate? (4)
    increased number of cells, tissue, fluid, air- neoplasia, exudate, bronchiectasis, hemorrhage
  28. What does depressed contour indicate? (2)
    necrosis, atelectasis
  29. What types of lesions have well-demarcated margins? (3)
    abscesses, granulomas, neoplasms
  30. What types of lesions usually have poorly demarcated margins? (2)
    poorly contained inflammation, fluids
  31. What pattern is this?
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  39. What pattern is this?
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  40. What contour do these lesions have?
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  41. What contour do these lesions have?
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Card Set
Resp2- Resp Path Patterns
vetmed resp2