Microbiology Exam 1

  1. 1. Published micrographic
    2. Made lenses and discovered animalcules in lake water
    • 1. Robert Hooke
    • 2. Leeuwenhoek
  2. Things made in the lab unwillingly
  3. Life comes from other living things
  4. Spontaneous generation of living things (not correct)
  5. This person found that the smallpox could be prevented through vaccination with a similar but milder disease-causing agent
    Edward Jenner

    actually discovered years earlier but he had a europerspective
  6. The study of the source, cause and mode of transmission of disease
  7. This was thought to have caused disease (and disease transmission
    Miasma (bad air)
  8. This person discovered the cause of cholera was a water pump
    John Snow
  9. Disease causes by medical treatment
  10. Something that is accepted as the norm
  11. Something that is changed from the norm
    Paradigm shift
  12. Discovered the source of puerperal fever or blood poisoning of women in childbirth
  13. Proposed that germs cause infectious diseases (developed the technique of heating to kill pathogens)
  14. This person made antisepsis
    Joseph Lister
  15. Put on skin and body to disinfect the external living surfaces
  16. Put on inanimate surfaces to disinfect
  17. Robert Koch postulate 1
    the same microorganisms are present in every case of the disease
  18. Robert Koch postulate 2
    the microorganisms are isolated from the tissue of a dead animal and a pure culture is prepared
  19. Robert Koch postulate 3
    microorganisms from the pure culture are inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal and the disease is reproduced
  20. Robert Koch postulate 4
    the identical microorganisms are isolated and recultivated from the tissue specimens of the experimental animal
  21. ___ cannot replicate without the replication machinery in a host cell--rely on metabolism and replication machinery of host
  22. Class of cells: Plants, animals and fungi that have cells that contain a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
  23. Class of cells: cells lack a membrane bound nucleus
  24. This person saw that penicillium mold killed bacterial cells leading to the development of penicillin
    Alexandre Flemming
  25. Why did the mold produce penicillin?
    To protect itself from bacteria
  26. Type of reproduction of bacteria
    asexual (doesn't need fertilization or partner--does not increase genetic diversity)
  27. Maintaining a stable internal environment (pH, temp, water and minerals)
  28. Microbes interact through a multicellular association which is a _____

    Helps organisms communicate and protect themselves (example: dental plaque)
  29. Chemical communication and cooperation between cells, calculated the minimum number of organisms in population in order to do what they need to do

    Bacteria use it to coordinate gene expression according to density
    Quorum sensing
  30. Eukaryotic has _____ and bacterial cells do not
  31. How many chromosomes do eukaryotic cells have?
    46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
  32. How many chromosomes do bacterial cells have?
    1 chromosome (circular)
  33. Give the cell structure and transports materials within the cell (movement and shape)
  34. Many prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (plants/fungi) have THIS to help maintain water balance by osmosis
    cell well
  35. Order of Taxonomy Systems (dear king philip came over for good soup)
    Domain, Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  36. TRUE OR FALSE: Bacteria is a Domain
  37. Motility, shape, reproduction, sequences of DNA (similarities), environments (they live in or CAN live in), effects on host and who it interacts with are all ways to....
    Classify organisms
  38. DNA amplification--essential when you cannot grow bacteria in lab and need to analyze DNA
    polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  39. ____ is HIGHLY conserved between species--if this changes it would not work and so if there are differences it is significat
  40. Gram stain technique
    • 1. Cells stained with crystal violent stain (+ and - turn purple)
    • 2. Gram's iodine is added (+ and - turn blue/purple)
    • 3. Decolorizer is added (+ retains color and - loses color and is clear)
    • 4. Safranin is added (+ remains blue/purple and - turns orange/red)
  41. Why is Safranin added to the cells in the last step of the gram staining technique?
    In order to see the cell on the slide--otherwise it is clear on a white background
  42. TB--how is it a fungus and a bacterium at the same time?
    It is a bacteria but at first the scientists did not know what it was so they called it a fungus
  43. Largest and most diverse group of species (ex. E coli and other disease causing pathogens)
  44. Consists of many grams + bacteria like bacillus, clostridium, staph, and strep
  45. Include stretomyces which produce antibiotics
  46. Why would a bacteria produce something that kills bacteria?
    Does this to protect itself
  47. Bacteria that carries out photosynthesis
  48. Pathogenic bacteria and cause the STD
  49. Live in the mouth and causes the STD syphilis
  50. Rod-shaped bacteria
  51. Spherical-shaped bacteria
  52. Vibrio (comma), spirilla (helical, thicker, and more rigid) or spirochete (thinner and more flexible)
  53. Cholera is caused by a ____ (shape)
  54. Syphilis is caused by a _____ (shape)
  55. Cluster
  56. Chain
  57. Protein fibers extending from the surface of many bacteria that are used for attachment (adhesion attach cells to surface, form biofilms and micro colonies)
  58. Used by bacteria to transfer genetic material between cells
    Conjugation Pili
  59. Long appendages extending from the cell surface
    Prokaryotic Flagella
  60. Three components of flagella
    Helical filament, basal body, hook
  61. The attraction or repulsion of bacteria to a chemical stimuli
  62. The attraction or repulsion of bacteria to a light stimuli
  63. ____ contain endoflagella which move the cell through torsion exerted on the cell by endoflagellar roatation
  64. Outer (sugar) layer external to the cell wall that is the adhering layering of polysaccharides and sometimes proteins
  65. Thick more structured layer of glycoalyx
  66. Thin, diffuse layer of glycoalyx
    Slime layer
  67. Why is the capsule dangerous?
    capsule serves to disguise the pathogen form the immune system so it is hard to distinguish from self0cells and is hard to destroy (hard to phagocytose)
  68. Two dimensional peptidoglycan layer and no teichoic acid, a thinner cell wall but has two membranes (cell walls between) and lipopolysaccharide
    Gram Negative Bacteria
  69. Thick peptidoglycan layer (gram stain gets stuck in there) and teichoic acid which is ONLY in this
    Gram Positive Bacteria
  70. Serves as an endotoxin in gram negative bacteria and is released from outer membrane upon partial or total destruction of the cell
  71. Both gram positive and negative contain alternating ___ and ___ subunits with proteins jutting out
    NAG and NAM
  72. How does LPA protect the genes of the gram negative bacteria
    It releases its endotoxin by death and sacrifices itself which then weakens the host's immune system and allows the gram negative bacteria to flourish
  73. What is the toxic part of LPA?
    Lipid A
  74. What does LPA activate
    monocytes that are phagocytic

    it OVER activates the immune system to hurt the host and then it takes advantage of the harmed host
  75. Penicillin affects _____
    cell walls
  76. Antimicrobial substances may disrupt:
    cell wall synthesis, energy metabolism and DNA replication, sensation to stimuli, molecule transport (active and passive)
  77. Spanish flu increases ____ and too many can be deadly
  78. All human cells are diploid EXCEPT
    Mature gametes
  79. Most bacteria and viruses are ___ (only one copt of each gene)
  80. Molecules of DNA smaller than the chromosome (mini chromosomes that are circular)
  81. Plasmids can be transferred between cells and an be used as _____
    vectors in genetic engineering
  82. Plasmids provide _____ for example R plasmids carry genes for resistance to antibiotics
    Genetic flexibility
  83. Antibiotic resistance will kill _____ people by 2050
    300 million
  84. Antibiotic resistance kills about _____ people each year

    similar to numbers to some cancers, gun violence and suicide
  85. Why are farm animals given sub-therapeutic amounts of antibiotics?
    Lowers the animals risk of infection (due to poor living conditions) and this kills the good bacteria in the animal so a larger percentage of food goes straight to animal growth and less is being eaten by bacteria
  86. What else (other than R plasmids) cause antibiotic resistance?
    Random mutations (lesser factor but do not rule out!)
  87. Antibiotics affect bacterial _____ (not the same as eukaryotic and therefore is advantageous to us)
    Ribosomes (70S--30S and 50S--NOT additive)
  88. Binary Fission: Cells increases in mass and size
    B period
  89. Binary Fission: DNA replicates and the two strands separate
    C period
  90. Binary Fission: Synthesis of a septum forms two identical cells
    D period
  91. The interval of time between successive binary fission
    Generation time
  92. The time from 1st infection to symptoms
    Incubation times
  93. S. Aures
    Staph infection
  94. S. Pyrogenes
    Strep throat causing bacteria
  95. chemically unidentified medium (nutrient broth or agar)
    Complex medium
  96. Chemical composition of medium is known
    Synthetic medium
  97. Contains ingredient to inhibit the growth of certain species and allow the growth of others
    Selective medium
  98. Contains specific chemicals to indicate species that posses or lack a biochemical process
    Differential medium
  99. 5 Ways that plasmids protect from antibiotics
    • 1. decrease membrane permeability
    • 2. find alternative biochemical pathways
    • 3. increase efflux and decrease influx of antibiotic
    • 4. chemical alteration of the antibiotic (beta-lactamase)
    • 5. alter the receptors
  100. Antibiotics that KILL
  101. Antibiotics that STOP SYNTHESIS
  102. Bacterial adapting to their new environment
    Lag phase
  103. When exponential growth of population occurs
    Log phase
  104. Reproductive and death rates equilibrium
    Stationary phase
  105. The accumulation of waste products and scarcity of resources causes the population to die
    Decline phase
  106. Grow optimally below 15*C and make up the largest portion of all prokaryoes on the Eath
  107. Live at the medium temperature range 10* to 45*C including pathogens in the human body
  108. Live best around 60*C in compost heaps and hot springs
  109. Archaea that grow optimal above 80*C found in seafloor hot-water vent
  110. Live in low oxygen environments
  111. Can be used to test an organism's oxygen sensitivity
    Thioglycollate Broth
Card Set
Microbiology Exam 1
Exam 1 content for Microbiology