BOTANY midterm

  1. What is the purpose of botany?
    To explore the world's botanical diversity and learn how "plants" are put together, how they live, how they evolved to be what they are, and what they do in nature
  2. Some reasons plant are interesting
    • Sedentary
    • Lack organized sense organs, yet sense environment 
    • Respond to environment
    • Do many things that few other organisms can do
  3. Cell
    Basic structural unit of living organisms
  4. Tissue
    Aggregation of cells with common function
  5. Organ
    Major structure composed of different tissue systems
  6. Cell wall
    cellulose; all carbs
  7. Cellulose
    Strong, flexible, digestible; most abundant organic molecule on Earth
  8. Lignin
    hard; inflexible (cell wall)
  9. Pectin
    flexible; water soluble (cell wall)
  10. Cell membrane
    Double membrane inside cell wall; regulates passage of some solutes in and out of cell
  11. Plasmodesmata
    strands of cytoplasm connecting adjacent cells; allow material to pass from cell-cell without crossing any membranes
  12. Nucleus
    membrane-bound; contains genetic material (DNA in chromosomes); regulates cell function
  13. Cytoplasm
    • All material between cell membrane and nucleus; metabolically active; includes:
    • chloroplasts
    • mitchondria
    • vacuole
  14. Chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis
  15. Mitochondria
    site of respiration
  16. Vacuole
    large, membrane-bound pocket of water and dissolved material (>90% of most cells)
  17. Cell Wall
    rigid porous; outermost boundary of cells
  18. Cell types
    • 8 main types in flowering plants, vary in the following characteristics, which are all functionally related:
    • shape
    • cell wall characteristics
    • living/dead when functionally mature
    • location
    • function
  19. Parenchyma
    • Shape: variable
    • living
    • located throughout
    • metabolism function
    • storage, conduction and wound healing
    • (most common, all purpose, living cell)
  20. Collenchyma
    • shape: elongated
    • living
    • located beneath plant surface
    • function: support in primary plant body 
    • strong but flexible - able to stretch
  21. Sclereid
    • variable shape
    • living/dead
    • located throughout 
    • mechanical and protective function
  22. Fiber
    • shape: very long
    • daed
    • located in xylem, phloem, and elsewhere
    • support function
    • major component of wood
  23. Tracheid
    • shape: elongated, tapering
    • dead
    • located in xylem
    • water conduction and support function
    • major component of wood
  24. Vessel Element
    • Shape: elongated 
    • Perforations
    • daed
    • located in xylem
    • water conduction and support function
  25. Sieve-tube member
    • elongated
    • living, lacks nucleus
    • located in the phloem
    • food conduction function
  26. comparison cell
    • Elongated
    • living
    • located in phloem
    • load/unload sieve tube member function
  27. Some plants are dead when functionally mature
Card Set
BOTANY midterm