The bacterial cell wall is made up of ______ interlinked molecule(s).
The ____ ____ confers shape and rigidity to the cell, and helps it withstand turgor pressure.
Mycoplasma and human cells don't have cell was because the environment is:
constant, so there's less risk of osmotic shock.
The cell was is expensive to make.
Gram-Positive cell envelope has mutiple layers of _______, and is threaded by ______ _____.
peptidoglycan, teichoic acids
The Gram-positive capsule is made of ________ and _________.
The bacterial capsule protects cells from _________.
True/False: capsules are also found in Gram-negative cells.
Name the layer in the Gram-Positive Cell Envelope:
- An additional protective layer commonly found in free-living bacteria and archaea
- Crystalline layer of thick subunits consisting of protein or glycoprotein
- May contribute to cell shape and help protect the cell from osmotic stress
Why do Gram-positive cells lose their S-layer after several generations in culture?
They are in a constant environment and no longer need extra protection. Making the S-layer require a lot of energy & those that don't make it are able to reproduce more.
___________ have very complex cell envelopes which include unusual membrane lipids (______ ______) and unusual sugars (arabinogalactans).
Mycobacterial Cell, mycolic acids
e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis & M. Leprae
True/False: The mycolic acid membrane lipids help protect the bacterium from phagocytosis.
False, this layer allow it to survive in the macrophage though.
Why does a myobacterial cell take a long time to divide?
It's complex envelope take a lot more energy and time to make.
The Gram-Negative outer membrane consists of a thin peptidoglycan layer of _______ sheets.
one or two
The Gram-Negative bacteria is covered by an _____ ______, which confers defensive abilities and toxigenic properties on many pathogens, and has _______.
outer membrane, porins
The Gram-Negative outer membrane's inward-facing leaflet has _______.
The Gram-Negative outer membrane's outward-facing leaflet has ______.
LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), which can be released into a host's bloodstream and kill them
Algae form cell walls of ______.
Fungi form cell walls of ______.
Diatoms form exoskeletons of ______.
Paramecia possess a ______ ______ to pump water out of the cell.
True/False: Eukaryotic microbes do not possess their own structures to avoid osmotic shock.
True/False: Bacterial cytoskeletons have proteins that determine their shape.
The E. coli nucleoid appears as clear regions that exlcude the _____ and contain the ____ _____.
ribosomes, DNA strands
The nucleoid form about ___ loops or domains. Within each domain, the DNA is supercoiled by ___-_____ ______.
50, DNA-binding proteins
Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes synthesize RNA and proteins ______ while the cell's DNA undergoes replication.
Bacterial DNA replication is coordinated with the cell wall ______ and ultimately the separation of the two ______ ____.
expansion, daughter cells
In prokaryotes, a circular chromosome begins to replicate at its orgin, or ____ site.
Prokaryotic DNA replication is bidirectional. At each fork, DNA is synthesized by ___ ______, with the help of accessory proteins (the ______).
DNA polymerase, replisome
Replication of the termination site triggers growth of the dividing partition, or ______.
The septation of Steptococci are oriented in:
The septation of Staphylococci are oriented in:
The septation of Tatrads and Sarcinae are oriented in:
Bacterial cell poles differ in their origin and "age". This phenomenon is called:
Bacillus species can undergo an _______ cell division to form an endospore at one end.
Some bacteria generate two kinds of daughter cells: one _____ and the other _____.
Named the specialized structure: extensively folded intracellular membranes
Named the specialized structure: polyhedral bodies packed with the enzyme Rubisco for CO2 fixation
Named the specialized structure: increases buoyancy
Named the specialized structure: stores Glycogen, PHB, and PHA for energy; sulfur for oxidation
Named the specialized structure: Membrane-embedded crystals of megnetie (FE3O4) which orient the swimming of some bacteria
Named the specialized structure: straight filaments of pilin protein, used in attachment, or in conjugation
pili, or fimbriae
Named the specialized structure: membrane-embedded extensions of the cytoplasm
Named the specialized structure: intercellular connections that pass material from one cell to the next
Prokayotes that are motile generally swim by means of ____ ______.
______ cells have flagella randomly distributed around the cell.
______ cell have flagella at the end(s)
_____ cells have a single flagellum.
Each flagellum is a spiral filament of protein monomers called ______.
The flagellum is rotated by a motor driven by the _____ ____ ____.
proton motive force
________ rotation of the flagella moves the cell towards the attractant.
______ rotation of the flagella stops forward motion, so cell tumbles and changes direction.
Most bacteria divide by _____ fission.
____ and ____ are used for attachment.
______ are rotary appendages used for movement and chemotaxis
In fluorescence microscopy, the specimen absorbs light and then re-emits it at a ____ energy and thus, a _____ wavelength.
C) lower; longer
All of the following are used to lyse cells EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements about membrane lipids is true?
B) Lipids of bacteria have ester linkages, while those of archaea have ether linkages.