1. Self-concept
    • your perceptions of your qualities, attributes & traits.
    • -Birth-no sense of self
    • -by 24 months signs of self-recognition
    • -Preschool age- and physical can describe inner qualities
    • -Adolescence-self-concepts more abstract and psychological
  2. Nature vs. Nurture
    • Nature: genetic and hereditary factors
    • Nurture: learning and environmental factors
  3. organismic
    organism is involved including use of cognition

    moral or ethical development
  4. mechanistic
    • the reduction of all behavior to common elements
    • example-instinctual and reflexive behavior
  5. discontinuous
    • certain changes in abilities or behaviors can be separated from other which argues for stages of development
    • example-language development
  6. continuous
    • changes are sequential and can't be separated easily
    • example-personality development
  7. Abraham Maslow (humanistic)
    hierarchy of needs
    • People are always motivated to higher-order needs:
    • -food/water to
    • -belonging/love to
    • -self esteem/prestige/status to
    • -self actualization

    psychological level-social level-cognitive level
  8. Robert Havighurst
    • Identified stages of growth¬†
    • requires completion of last one for success and happiness
  9. Developmental tasks defined by Havighurst
    • Arise from physical maturation, influences from culture and society, and desires and values of the person.
    • developmental tasks are skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that an individual has to acquire through physical maturation, social learning and personal effort
  10. Behaviorism
    (John Watson & B.F. Skinner)
    • Environment manipulates biological and psychological drives and needs resulting in development
    • learning and behavior changes are a result of rewards and punishments
    • s
  11. Law of effect
    • Edward Thorndike
    • When a stimulus response connection is followed by a reward (reinforcement) that connection is strengthened
    • Consequence of behavior determines probability of it being repeated
  12. Fixation
    incomplete or inhibited development at one of Freuds stages
  13. Libido
    • Basic energy or force of life
    • consists of: life instincts and death instincts
  14. Qualitative
    • Change in structure or organization
    • example: sexual development
  15. Quantitative
    • Change in #, degree or frequency
    • content changes
    • example: intellectual develpoment
  16. Defense Mechanisms
    • Unconscious protective processes that help us control primitive emotions and anxiety
    • they include:
    • -repression
    • -projection
    • -reaction formation
    • -rationalization
    • -displacement
    • -introjection
    • -regression
    • -denial
    • -sublimation
  17. Sublimation
    Anxiety or sexual tension or energy is channeled into socially acceptable activities such as work
  18. Denial
    Refusing to see something that is a fact or true in reality
  19. Regression
    retreating to earlier or more primitive (childlike) forms of behavior
  20. Introjection
    Identify through fantasy the expression of some impulse or motive
  21. Displacement
    Substituting a different object or goal for the impulse or motive that is being expressed
  22. Rationalization
    Providing a reason for a behavior and thereby concealing the true motive or reason for the behavior
  23. Reaction Formation
    Expressing a motive or impulse in a way that is directly opposite what was originally intended
  24. Projection
    Avoiding the conflict within oneself by ascribing the ideas or motives to someone else
  25. Repression
    Rejecting the conscious thought (denying or forgetting) the impulse or idea that provokes anxiety
  26. Assimilation
    • Piaget-adaptation
    • Modifying relevant environmental events so they can be incorporated into individuals existing structures
  27. Accommodation
    • Piaget-adaptation
    • modifying organization of the individual in response to environmental events
  28. Schema
    Another word for a mental structure that processes information, perceptions and experiences
  29. Jean Piaget
    • Studied Cognitive development (intelligence)
    • Inherit 2 tendencies:
    • -Organization: how we systematize and organize mental processes and knowledge
    • -Adaptation: adjustment to the environment
  30. Plasticity
    For most lifespan development is plastic representing an easy and smooth transition from one stage to the next
  31. Tabula Rosa
    • John Lockes view children begin as Blank Slate
    • acquire characteristics through experience
  32. Genotype
    genetic (inherited) makeup of the individual
  33. Phenotype
    Way an individual genotype is expressed through physical and behavioral characteristics
Card Set
nce study cards