Chapter 4: Longevity Health and Functioning

  1. average longevity
    commonly called average life expectancy

    age at which half the individuals born in a particular year will have died

    affected by nature/ nuture

    currently 79; uch higher
  2. What expectancies fall under average and max longevity?
    active life expec: living a healthy old age

    dependent life expec: simply living a long time
  3. What led to a higher average longevity?
    decline in infant mortality and women dying during childbirth
  4. Maximum longevity
    • the oldest age to which an individual of a species lives
    • REsearch= 120 years (Hayflick)
  5. The average female lives to be approx __. Men live __.
    • 80
    • 72-73
  6. What are two factors of average longevity?
    genetic and environmental
  7. Genetic factors
    According to research by Alex Bell, children of parents who lived beyond 80 survived about 20 years longer than children whose parents died before 60

    • Human Genome Project: 2003--mapped genes
    • found genes linked to living over 100
  8. Environmental factors
    • disease
    • toxins
    • lifestyle
    • social class (poverty shortens longevity; medical coverage; diet)

    we are responsible for most of the environmental factors
  9. Gender differences in average longevity
    women have nearly a 5-7 uear edge over men
  10. Why do women live longer?
    men are more vulnerable to disease than woman due to more stress

    they are risk takers

    they smoke and use alcohol more than women

    they allow stress to affect them more than women

    There have been suggestions about the X chromosomes, higher metabolic rate, higher brain to body weight in women, and the lower testosterone in women
  11. Defining health and illness
    Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not just the absence of disease or impairment

    illness: presence of a physical or mental disease or impairment
  12. Self-rated health research
    it is the best predictor of how long you'll live

    • Captures more aspects than other measures
    • Poor ratings= downward trajectory

    ratings affect behaviors

    assessment of people's internal and external resources

    ratings are fairly stable

    Very predictive
  13. Changes in the Immune system
    There are a variety of leukocytes--> various types to battle and do different/ contain jobs

    When IS is impacted by stress, you get sick
  14. How does aging affect the immmune system?
    • Not well understood
    • environmental and genetic factors researched
  15. Aging is related to __.
    how well the system works

    • Older adults= higher risk
    • decreased in effectiveness
    • takes longer to build defense
    • benefit less from immunizations
  16. Autoimmunity
    immune system can attack the body itself
  17. Pssychoneuroimmunology
    • psychology
    • neurological
    • immunological system changes
  18. HIV and AIDS and older adults
    By 2015, half of Americans with HIV will be over 50

    At risk: homosexual, bisexual population and adults (no condoms; thinning of vaginal walls)
  19. Acute diseases
    deal with various times throguhout the year; conditiosn that develop over a short period of time and cause a rapid change in health

    • Treatments: medicine/ antibiotics (bacteria)
    • run their course (virus)

    Rate decreases with age, but more at risk from dying
  20. Chronic diseases
    conditions that last a long time and may be accompanied by residual functional impairment that necessitates long-term management

    rate increases with age
  21. PRimary Appraisal
    primary:categorize event as irrelevant, benign/ positive, or stressful

    (selective attention/ incorrect can lead to crisis)
  22. secondary appraisal
    • evaluate the event and our ability to cope with harm, threat, or challenge
    • --> What can i do? 
    • --> internals versus externals
  23. Reappraisal
    changes in the situation may change the appraisal--> increase or lower stress
  24. Common chronic conditions--diabetes mellitus
    • diabetes mellitus
    • - occurs when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin
    • - primary characteristic= insufficient glucose
    • ---> coma if too high/ unconscious if too low
  25. Type I diabetes
    • earlier in life
    • insulin dependent
  26. Type II diabetes
    • adulthood
    • often managed through diet
  27. Long term effects of Diabetes mellitus
    • nerve damage
    • diabetic retinopathy
    • kidney disorders
    • cerebrovascular accidents (strokes)
    • coronary artery damage
    • skin issues
    • poor circulation in arms and legs (gangrene)
  28. Treatment of diabetes mellitus
    • low carb/ low calorie diet
    • exercise
    • hygiene of skin, gums, teeth, and feet
    • insulin
  29. Common chronic conditions--cancer
    • 2nd leading cause of death in US behind cardiovasculr disease
    • unhealthy lifestyles (sun exposure and smoking)
    • risk increases with age--males at greater risk
    • prostate cancer in men
    • breast cancer in women
    • genetic links
    • screening controversy
  30. Common chronic conditions-- incontinence
    can't control bowel movements or hold urine in

    loss of ability to control the elimination of urine and feces on an occassional or consistent basis

    increases with age

    more embarrassing than dangerous
  31. Four major reasons for incontinence
    stress-- pressure in abdomen exceeds ability to resist urinary flow

    urge-- CNS probelm after stroke or UTI

    overflow-- improper contractions of the kidneys

    functional-- physical disability or cognitive impairment makes person unaware of the need to urinate
  32. Medication absorption
    time needed for medications to enter the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the drug is distributed throughout the body.
  33. patterns of medication use
    explosion of new meds available. New drugs can be dangerous to older adults; they are expensive; and there are multiple medication complexities
  34. Drug metabolism
    getting rid of meds in bloodstream is partly job of liver

    slower in adults
  35. Drug excretion
    occurs mainly through the kidneys in urine, although some through feces, sweat and saliva

    slower in adults
  36. polypharmacy
    the use of multiple medications in the same person

    interactions= potentially dangerous
  37. Adherence to medication regiments
    difficult with older patients

    many older patients go to more than one doctor so accurate knowledge of drugs taken is important
  38. Changes in medication breakdown in older age
    • absorption slows
    • decreased drug metabolism
    • ddecreased excretion
    • increased side effects
  39. disability
    the effects of chronic conditions on people's ability to engage in activities that are necessary, expected, and personally desired in their society

    difficulty doing daily tasks, recreational activities, socializing, etc
  40. Compression of morbidity
    becoming disabled later with a shorter period of disability before death
  41. A model of disablement process (Verbrugge and Jette 1994)
    Emphasizes the relationship between pathology, impairment of organ systems, and functional limitation
  42. Two types of intervention strategies
    environmental and health--- extraindividual factors: surgery, meds, social support services, and physical environment supports

    behavioral and personality---intraindividual factors: exercise program, positive outlook, taking advantage of transportation programs
  43. functional health status
    how well a person is functioning in daily life
  44. ADL
    activities of daily living

    include basic self-care tasks such as eating, bathing, toileting, walking, or dressing
  45. IADL
    instrumental activities of daily living

    actions that entail some intellectual competence and planning (ex: shopping, paying bills, telephone calls, meds, appts, etc)
  46. When ADL is no longer possible, what happens?
    you should be moved from your home
Card Set
Chapter 4: Longevity Health and Functioning