Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Set 2

  1. What does analysis of 16S rRNA sequences show?

    B) Archaea are as distant from bacteri as from eukaryotes.
  2. Which best defines a living organisms that lives inside a larger organism?

    B) Endosymbiont
  3. Fourteenth century, ______ ______ caused by Yersinia pestis.
    bubonic plague
  4. Ninteenth century = _______ caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  5. Name the famous person: Britich nurse who first recognized the significance of disease in warfare. 
    Founded the science of medical statistics.
    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
  6. Name the famous person: built the first compound microscope, used it to observe mold, coined the term "cell"
    Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
  7. Name the famous person:
    - built single-lens magnifiers, complete with sample holder and focus adjustment
    - First observed single-celled microbes
    - called them "small animals"
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  8. Spontaneous generation
    The theory that living creatures could arise without parents
  9. Name the famous person: showed that maggots in decaying meat were the offspring of flies
    Francesco Redi (1660)
  10. Name the famous person: Showed that a sealed flask of meat broth sterilized by boiling failed to grow microbes
    Lazzaro Spallanzani (1760s)
  11. Name the famous person:
    - discovered the microbial basis of fermentation
    - devised "swan-neck" flasks
    - showed that, after boiling, the contents remain free of microbial growth, despite access to air
    Louis Pasteu (1860s)
  12. Germ theory of diease
    many diseases are caused by microbes
  13. Name the famous person:
    - German physician
    - Founder of the scientific method of microbiology
    - Applied his methods to numerous lethal diseases around the world
    Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  14. Koch's Four Postulates as a criteria for establising a causative link between an infectious agent and a disease are:
    • 1. Microbe is always present in diseased host (absent in healthy)
    • 2. Microbe is grown in pure culture (No other microbes present)
    • 3. Introduce pure microbe into healthy host (Individual becomes sick)
    • 4. Same microbe re-isolated from now-sick individual
  15. Name the famous person: Australian scientist who discovered Helicobacter pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcers, and ingested it to prove it, then won the Nobel Prize
    Barry Marshall
  16. Name the famous person: Introduced the practice of smallpox innoculation to Europse in 1717
    Lady Mary Mantagu
  17. Name the famous person: deliberately infected patient with matter from cowpox lesions
    Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
  18. Name the famous person: developed the first vaccine based on attenuated (weakened) strains
    - Fowl cholera
    - Rabies
    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  19. Immunization
    the stimulation of an immune response by deliberate inoculation with an attenuated pathogen
  20. Name the famous person: ordered doctors to wash their hands with chlorine, an antiseptic agent, mortality rates fell
    Ignaz Semmelweis (1847)
  21. Name the famous person: developed use of phenol to treat wounds and clean surgical instruments
    Joseph Lister (1865)
  22. In 1929, discovered that Penicillium mold generated a substance that kills bacteria
    Alexander Fleming
  23. In 1941, purified penicillin
    Howard Florey & Ernst Chain
  24. The first comericial antibiotic to save human lives
  25. In 1892, studied tobacco mosaic disease. Found that agent of transmission could pass through a porcelain filter that blocked all known microbes.
    Dmitri Ivanovsky
  26. Name the famous person: "the agent of tobacco mosaic disease is not a bacterium, because it pases through a filter that retains bacteria."
    Martinus Beijerinck
  27. Name the famous person: purified and crystallized the filterable agent, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
    Wendell Stanley
  28. Microbes cycle the many minerals essential for all life, including global ____, and much of the ____.
    N2, O2
  29. Less than ____% of all microbial species can be cultures in the laboratory.
  30. Only the ____ ____ of Earth supports complex multicellular life.
    outer skin
  31. Name the famous person:
    - Russian scientist who was among the first to study microbes in natural habitats
    - Discovered lithotrophs
    - Developed enrichment cultures
    Sergei Winogradsky (1856-1953)
  32. A wetland model ecosystem containing regions of enrichment for microbes of diverse metabolism.
    Winogradsky column
  33. What microbes can be found at the top of a Winogradsky column?
  34. What microbes can be found at the bottom of a Winogradsky column?
    Sulfate-reducing bacteria
  35. In what order would you expect to see these microbes in a Winogradsky column:
    - Green sulfur bacteria
    - Cyanobacteria
    - Sulfate-reducing bacteria
    - Purple sulfur bacteria
    • Cyanobacteria 
    • Purple sulfur bacteria 
    • Green sulfur bacteria 
    • Sulfate-reducing bacteria
  36. Name the famous person: observation of microbes
    van Leeuwenhoek
  37. Name the famous person: disproved spontaneous generation
  38. Name the famous person: developed the Four Postulates
  39. Name the famous person: developed vaccination
  40. Name the famous person: discovered antibiotics
  41. _____ perform unique roles in geochemical cycling.
Card Set
Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Set 2
Microbiology 351, Exam 1, Set 2