Chapter 3: Physical Changes

  1. What are the biological theories?
    • rate-of-living
    • cellular
    • programming cell death
  2. Rate-of-living theories
    faster the metabolism, the shorter the lifespan

    limited energy throguhout the lifespan (once all energy is used up, they die)

    excess calories leads to increased aging (not proven; poor quality of life)

    hormonal regulatory system adaptation to stress
  3. What are teh ideas in cellular theories
    • Hayflick limit and telomeres
    • cross-linking
    • free rads
    • antioxidants
  4. Telomere theory
    • There is a limited number of times a cell can divide (Hayflick limit)
    • Each replication, the telomeres become shorter
  5. Telomeres
    Telomeres: tip of chromosome; adjust cells response to stress; chronic stress shortens life span; growth stimulation based on cell division
  6. Telomerase
    Telomerase: enzyme needed in DNA replication to reproduce telomeres during cell division
  7. Cross-linking
    • tissue becomes stiffer with age
    • cross-links increase with age
    • collagen acts like reinforcing rods in concrete
  8. Free radicals
    • reactive chemicals causing cell damage
    • produced randomly in normal metabolism
    • changes oxygen levels in cells
    • antioxidants including Vitamins A, C, and E combat free radical
  9. What are teh implications for developmenal forces?
    • biological (celular piece)
    • psychlogical (dealing with emotion and stress)
    • sociocultural (family, peers, etc)
    • lifecycle forces
  10. Changes in skin
    • Four step process
    • 1) outer layer thins through cell loss
    • 2) collagen fibers lose flexibility; skin struggles to regain shape
    • 3) Elastin fibers struggle to keep skin stretched
    • 4) layer of fat diminishes
  11. Changes in hair
    individual differences in thinning and graying

    males don't lose facial hair; femails gain it due to hormonal changes of the climacteric

    Hair loss caused by destruction of germ centers that produce hair follicles

    Graying caused by cessation of pigment production
  12. Changes in body build
    differences in the way bodies look over time

    - decrease in height and fluctuations in weight: between mid-50s and mid-70s, men lose about 1 inch and women 2 inches

    - compression of spine

    - changes in posture
  13. Changes in body build continued
    • weight gain then loss
    • - men- abdomen
    • - women- hips

    Normal body weight at 65= longer life expectancy
  14. Changes in mobility
    muscle mass decreases (20% by age 70;  40% by 80)

    bone loss occurs; women two times more likely to get osteoporosis
  15. Changes in mobility continued
    joints--> osteoarthritis and RA
  16. osteoartritis
    • gradual onset and progression of pain and disability
    • minor signs of inflammation
    • wear and tear disease
    • treatment-steroids and anti inflam drugs
  17. RA
    • more destructive; more painful, joints swollen
    • treatmnet--anti inflam drugs and aspirin

  18. Vision-- structural changes in eye
    • adaptation: light and dark declines
    • presbyopia: lens yellows with age leading to troubles seeing objects clearly
    • cataracts: opaque spots on lens limiting light transmissions
    • glaucoma: fluid does not drain properly causing high pressures; can cause permanent blindness
  19. vision-- retinal changes
    macular degeration: progressive destructions of receptors; leads to functional blindness

    diabetic retinopathy: fluid retention int eh macular, detachment of retina, hemorrhage, and aneurysms
  20. Hearing
    damage due to loud environment-- can also be short exposure

    cumulative effects of noise and normative age-related changes: presbycusis--reduced sensitivity to high-ptiched tones--> nerve and conductiondeafness
  21. nerve deafness

    conduction deafness
    neurons in ear cochlea are broken; cochlear implants helps with this

    conduction deafness: middle ear bones fuse together
  22. somesthesia
    critical for survival

    • loss of touch
    • temp regulation
    • pain sensitivity
    • kinesthesis
  23. Balance located in __ and __.
    ears and cerebellum
  24. Balance
    vestibular system: fear of falling; dizziness, lightheadness, vertigo
  25. taste and smell-- smell
    • personal hygeine
    • cologne and perfumes
    • safety fa cots
    • memory differences bettween odors and other memory cues
    • Alzheimers-- only 40-60% identification
  26. Cardiovascular system
    • accumulation of fat deposits
    • stinffening of heart muscles

    decline in aerobic capacity
  27. Cardiovascular diseaes: congestive heart failure
    fluid builds up; cant pump easily; body swells; heart enlarges and pressure in veins increases
  28. Cardiovascular diseaes: angina pectoris
    chest pain
  29. Cardiovascular diseaes: myocardial infacrtion
    • heart attack
    • muscle tissues die
  30. Cardiovascular diseaes: atherosclerosis
    bild up of fat deposits on artery walls
  31. Cardiovascular diseaes: cerebrovascular accident
  32. Cardiovascular diseaes: hypertoension
    • when blood presssure increased becomes severe¬†
    • 140 ssystolic over 90 diastolic
  33. Respiratory illnesses
    Chrnic obstructive pulmonary diseases
  34. COPD causes
    • smoking
    • pollution
    • dusts
    • chemicals
    • rare cases by genes
  35. Empyhsema
    destruction of the membranes around the air sacs in the lungs

    no bouncing back due to perm damage
  36. chronic bronchitis
    need to pump body with bronchodilators
  37. asthma
    trouble breathing; induced by roaches, pollen, dust, mice feces, changes in weather, etc
  38. Female reproductie system
    menopause: menstruation stops

    climacteric: passing into non-reproductive years

    HRT: estrogen; controversial as it has been linked to cancer

    genital organ change begins in 40s with perimenopause (transition) and changesi n organs and sexual functioning
  39. male reproductive system
    • no eent to mark reproducitve changes
    • decrease in testosterone and sperm production

    prostate cancer a real threat

    impotence: normally reatable with drugs

    erectile dysfunction
  40. implications of the developmental forces
    • three general approaches to slowing or reversing the aging process:
    • 1) delaying the chronic illnesses of old age
    • 2) slow the fundamental processes of aging to increase the life span
    • 3) arrest or reverse aging by removing hte damage caused by the metabolic process
  41. Reasons for gender differences in appearane and mobility

    hair dyes

    plastic surgery
  42. reasons for vertigo and dizziness
    • vestibular system
    • illness
    • problems with sensory integration
    • medication side effects
Card Set
Chapter 3: Physical Changes