Study Guide

  1. Political Ideologies
    1) Defined: A comprehensive and consistent set of political ideas about what constitutes the equitable and just political order.

    a) Pure liberal: One who is liberal on social conduct issues as well as economic policy issues.

    b) Pure conservative: One who is conservative on social conduct and economic policy issues.
  2. Liberalism in transition
    a) 19th century: Liberalism referred to a free and unfettered (without restraints) economic system.

    b) Contemporary: A reasonable amount of collaboration and cooperation between the economic and political systems.
  3. Classical Liberalism (Jefferson, Jackson)
    a) Government that governs least governs best

    b) Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations. 1776. "Invisible Hand"

    c) Laissez-faire/hands off.

    d) Duty of government: The protection of property rights
  4. Contemporary Liberalism (Kennedy, Cuomo)
    a) Positive state involvement in the economic system.

    b) Social welfare programs to supply programs to supply basic needs.

    c) High tolerance toward fringe groups. (PETA, GAY)

    d) Non-interventionist foreign policy.
  5. Neo-Liberalism (Clinton, Gore, Obama)
    a) Creation not redistribution of wealth.

    b) Free trade.

    c) Reform entitlements.

    d) Strong but economical defense.
  6. Conservatism
    Emphasized the values of tradition and established practices as guides for the future.
  7. Early American Conservatism
    a) Property should be widely held for buy property class would produce an aristocracy class.

    b) Duty of government: Promote a virtuous citizenry.
  8. Industrial Age (Spencer/Sumner)
    a) Unregulated economic development facilitated by the principle of Social Darwinism.

    b) An extrapolation of Darwin's theory whereby people should be free to compete in the economic arena for survival.

    c) Natural selection = economic competition.

    d) Result: economic competition in which the fit survive and the weak perish.
  9. Contemporary Conservatism (Dole, Gingrich)
    a) Still remains at its core a defense of economic individualism against the growth of the welfare state.

    b) Reduced spending on social programs.

    c) Tax policies to encourage economic growth.

    d) Strong defense.

    e) Down-play (eliminate) affirmative action.

    f) Duty of government: promote a virtuous citizenry.
  10. Neo-conservatism (Bush, Wolfowitz)
    a) Most were liberal converts to conservatism during the 1970s-1980s.

    b) Maintain that modern liberals have promised too much to too many groups and that a government that does so can't deliver and becomes overloaded.

    c) Skeptical of government's ability to solve economic and social problems.

    d) Opposed to racial quotas.

    e) Favor the creation not the re-distribution of wealth.

    f) Assertive foreign policy.
  11. New Right (Robertson, Falwell, Viguerie)
    a) Movement in the late 1970s/early 1980s that included Christian evangelicals, anti- abortionists and anti-gun control advocates.

    b) Also included: members of the middle/working classes who felt alienated from contemporary liberalism and who never felt quite comfortable with the pro- business bias of contemporary conservatism.

    c) Critical of big government and big corporations.

    d) Blame the policy of liberals for society's problems.

    e) Advocate radical measures to return traditional cultural values.
  12. Social Democracy (Harrington, Chomsky)
    a) Government ownership and control of major industries, utilities, transportation systems.

    b) Limits on individual wealth/property.

    c) Comprehensive/universal national health and welfare.

    d) Extensive regulation of the economy.
  13. Libertarianism (Clark, Morreau, Browne)
    a) Essential role of government: protection of human rights.

    b) Right to life: protection against the use of force by others.

    c) Right to liberty: no government restrictions on speech, press or assembly; nor on ideas, books, films or any other means of communication.

    d) Right to property.

    e) No government restrictions on the moral/economic life of individuals.

    f) Non-interventionist foreign policy.

    g) Drastic reductions in defense spending.
    a) Libel: Any written printed or fictional statement that damages a person by defaming his character or exposing them to ridicule.

    b) Slander: The utterance of a defamatory statement injuries to the well-being or reputation of a person.

    c) Injured party must prove in court that the communication suffered actual damage and that it was either false or defamatory.

    d) Higher burden of proof for public officials and celebrities. Case in point NYT v. Sullivan.
    Herbert Spencer, a 19th century philosopher, promoted the idea of Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is an application of the theory of natural selection to social, political, and economic issues. In its simplest form, Social Darwinism follows the mantra of "the strong survive," including human issues. This theory was used to promote the idea that the white European race was superior to others, and therefore, destined to rule over them. In nature, the strong survive and those best suited to survival will out-live the weak. According to Social Darwinism, those with strength (economic, physical, technological) flourish and those without are destined for extinction.
    •To win over the undecided or weak partisans among the voters.

    •To motivate one's own supporters to turn-out on Election Day.

    •Analysis, a) Republicans: Republicans vote, b) Democrats: Democrats encourage people to vote

    •Most crucial aspect is voter turn-out: low turn-out favors Republicans. Why? Because Democrats are the majority, however since majority do not vote there is a low turnout which in favor puts Republicans in control, even though the Democrats have the voting power.
    •Provide candidates for office.

    •Help get out the vote.

    •Facilitate mass electoral choice.
    DE-ALIGNMENT: 1) Overall decline in the attractiveness of either party. 2) Large numbers of voters with negative or neutral images of the parties. 3) Growth in the belief that neither party can provide solutions for important problems.

    REALIGNMENT: 1) Long term change when the electorate drifts away from traditional party ties. 2) It's up to the party to realign its platform to reflect the genuine interests of the electorate it is supposed to represent.
    •Access: proximal accessibility that enables lobbyists to get to know decision makers.

    •Information peddling: *Knowledge of legal process. *Expertise on issues under debate *Information on the group’s position.

    •Grass-roots mobilization: mobilizing constituents to put pressure on the legislator on the lobbyist’s behalf.

    •Campaign support: as costs of mounting a successful campaign increase, legislators depend more and more heavily on contributions from organized interests.
    A) Defined: positive acts of government designed to protect persons against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government or individuals.

    B) Most significant development in broadening the scope of a national system of civil rights: 14th Amendment.
  21. AMERICAN DILEMMAL (Gunner Myrdal)
    The profession of a commitment to the abstract ideals of freedom and equality with substantially less commitment to their practice.

    • Positive steps include passage of:

    a) 13th Amendment (1865) – Abolishing slavery

    b) 14th Amendment (1868) – Pertinent clause, equal protection

    c) 15th Amendment (1870) – Extending the voting franchise to black males of age.

    d) Civil Rights Act (1875) – Outlawed segregation by privately owned businesses offering to serve the public.
    De facto: In fact, whether by right or not; not established by law.

    De jure: With willful intent.

    • Case in Point: Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg

    Facts: In the wake of Brown II, many school districts still sought to maintain vestiges of their pre-Brown I segregated systems. Defendant school districts brought suit, alleging that District Courts had overreached their authority, broad as it may be, under Brown II.

    Issue: What is the scope of District Court authority under Brown II? When is it appropriate for the court to invoke that authority?

    Answer: The authority is broad, but is appropriate only where local districts have failed to bring themselves into compliance with Brown I on their own accord. Single-race schools are not per se a “mark of a system that still practices segregation by law.” The court “should scrutinize such schools,” and the burden is on the school district to demonstrate that the school’s racial makeup is not the result of past or present de jure segregation. Busing is an appropriate remedy, as well, as long as the time involved in the busing does not risk the health of the children or significantly impinge on the educational process.

    Discussion: The Supreme Court of the United States (Supreme Court) made clear that the federal courts have almost full discretion in desegregating previously segregated school systems. However, their authority only exists when the local school boards “default” in their efforts to desegregate.

    Gerrymandering: In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts. The resulting district is known as a gerrymander; however, that word can also refer to the process. When used to allege that a given party is gaining disproportionate power, the term gerrymandering has negative connotations.
    Matthews explains that nationwide grassroots movement has supported a 28th amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The amendment opposes and will eliminate wealthy corporate special interest money to buy American elections and politics. The whole point is to prove that Corporations are not people and money is not the speech under the first amendment. In 2010 in the case of the Citizens United v. FEC, the Supreme Court rules that corporations are persons and they have the right according to the U.S. Constitution to buy elections and run our government.
    By bourgeoisie is meant the class of modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage-labor. By proletariat, the class of modern wage-laborers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live.
    Equality amongst the bourgeoisies and proletariat to create a stronger economy. Everybody should contribute as much as they can in accordance with their ability to society and that because of this everyone would be entitled to the same. Hence his slogan ‘From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs’. The division allowed the bourgeoisie to exploit and oppress the proletarians.
  26. Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
    The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment of the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from denying any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. In other words, the laws of a state must treat an individual in the same manner as others in similar conditions and circumstances.
  27. Civil Rights Act of 1875
    Civil Rights Act (1875) – Outlawed segregation by privately owned businesses offering to serve the public.
  28. Compromise of 1877: Rise of White Supremacy
    A) National government agreed to:

    1) End the military occupation of the South

    2) National Government agreed to end efforts to rearrange southern society

    3) Agreed to lend tacit approval to White Supremacy in the region

    B) In return, South:

    1) Pledges support to the union

    2) South excepted National Supremacy

    3) The South agreed to permit the Republican Presidential Candidate to assume office
  29. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    See Study Guide.
  30. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
    See Study Guide.
  31. Civil Rights Act (1964)
    Ban on discrimination in public accommodations, Case in point: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964).

    Ban on discrimination in employment EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission).

    Ban on discrimination at any educational facility receiving federal money. Case in Point: Lemon V. Kurtzman (1971).
  32. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
    See Study Guide.
  33. What are the Political Ideologies?
    1. Classical Liberalism

    2. Contemporary Liberalism

    3. Neo-Liberalism

    4. Early American Conservatism

    5. Industrial Age

    6. Contemporary Conservatism

    7. Neo-Conservatism

    8. New Right

    9. Libertarianism
  34. Ongoing challenge of E Pluribus Unum
    A motto of the United States; Latin for “Out of many, one.” It refers to the Union formed by the separate states. E pluribus Unum was adopted as a national motto in 1776 and is now found on the Great Seal of the United States and on United States currency. With constant issues putting people wealthy people in control of decisions for the people only widens the gap for economic destruction. Today’s America is fight between the haves and haves not. I think the only difference between today and 1960’s is that the haves not who consist of minorities are demanding control and rights over their country. In today’s society awareness of one person’s rights can make a world of difference and would be considered a small step in the right direction.
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