MICR 351 Exam 1 - Set 1

  1. Heat stable ____ _________ is used for amplifying DNA via PCR.
    DNA polymerase
  2. Bacteria readily _______ DNA from unrelated organisms.
  3. The three domains of life are:
    Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
  4. Eukaryotic organielles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, evolved by endosymbiosis from ________ cells engulfed by __________.
    prokaryotic, pre-eukaryotes
  5. Microbes are microscopic organisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protists and viruses. True/False?
  6. Name the famous person: discovered the complementary bases and antiparallel nature of DNA
    James Watson and Francis Crick (1953)
  7. Name the famous person: used X-ray crystallography to determine that DNA is a double helix
    Rosalind Franklin (1953)
  8. Name the famous person: showed that the transforming substance in bacteria is DNA
    Oswald Avery and colleagues (1944)
  9. Name the famous person: discovered transformation in bacteria
    Frederick Griffith (1928)
  10. Name the famous person: developed ultracentrifuge
    Theodor Svedberg
  11. Microbes living symbioticaly inside a larger organism
  12. Name the famous person: developed electron microscope
    Ernst Ruska
  13. Which two instruments had exceptional impacts on the study of cell structure?
    • 1) electron microscope (revealed internal structure of cells)
    • 2) ultracentrifuge (enabled separation of subcellular parts)
  14. Based on the endosymbiosis theory, what prokaryotes lead to mitochondria and then protocists, and then finally plants, animals, fungi, and protists?
    proteobacteria (respiring)
  15. Based on the endosymbiosis theory, what prokaryotes lead to chloroplasts and then plants?
    cyanobacteria (phototrophic)
  16. Name the famous person: Proposed that eukaryotic organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) evolved by endosymbiosis from prokaryotic cells engulfed by pre-eukaryotes
    Lynn Marguilis (1938-2011)
  17. Give 3 examples of endosymbionts.
    • 1) Rhizobia in the roots of legumes (nitrogen fixation)
    • 2) Gut microbiota
    • 3) Coral microbiota
  18. Symbiosis of algae and fungi
  19. Name the famous person: Studies prokaryotes that live in hot spring, and produce methane. Analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that these prokaryotes were a distinct for of life. He called them archaea.
    Carl Woese (1977)
  20. Name the famous person: added Fungi as a fifth kingdom of eukaryotic microbes
    Robert Whittaker (1920-1980)
  21. Name the famous person: divided Monera into two groups. Eukaryotic Protists (protozoa and algae) and Prokaryotic Bacteria.
    Herbert Copeland (1902-1968)
  22. Name the famous person: "Microbes are neither plants nor animals." Names a third kind of life called Monera.
    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919)
  23. Microbial species have ___% similarity of DNA sequence.
  24. Give two challenges that early taxonimists faced while attempting to classify microbes.
    • 1) Low resolution of the light microscope
    • 1) Microbial species are hard to define
  25. Give two examples of contradictions to the simple definition of a microbe.
    • 1. Supersized microbial cells
    • 2. Microbial communities
  26. Each microbe contains in its ________, the capacity to reproduce its own kind.
  27. True/False: Microbes often consist of multiple cells.
    False, microbes often consist of a single cell.
  28. Microbial cells range in size from:
    millimeters (mm) to 0.2 micrometers
  29. Define: microbe
    A living organism that requires a microscope to be seen
  30. Name the field that studies: The origin of life in the universe and the possibility of life outside Earth
  31. Name the field that studies: Analysis of microbial strains as evidence in criminal investigation
    Forensic microbiology
  32. Name the field that studies:  The use of microbial metabolism to remidate human wastes and industiral pollutants
  33. Name the field that studies: Microbial diversity and microbial processes in natural and artificial environments
    Environmental microbiology
  34. Name the field that studies: Production of drugs, cloned gene products, and biofuels.
    Industrial microbiology
  35. Name the field that studies: Fermented foods and food preservation.
    Food microbiology
  36. Name the field that studies: The immune system and other host defenses against infectious disease.
  37. Name the field that studies: Distribution and causes of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.
  38. Name the field that studies: The mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of microbial disease.
    Medical microbiology
  39. Name the field that studies: Fundamental questions about microbial form and functions, genetics, and ecology.
    Experimental microbiology
  40. Classify the microorganism by growth temperature:

    ~0°C - 20° C
  41. Barophiles
    Organisms adapted to grow at very high pressures. (Up to 1,000 atm (110 MPa))
  42. Barotolerant
    Organisms that grow well over the range of 1-50 MPa, but their growth falls off thereafter
  43. Many _____ are also psychrophiles because the average temperature at the ocean floor is 2°C.
  44. Microorganisms that grow at pH 5-8

    (includes most pathogens)
  45. Microorganisms that grow at pH 0-5

    (are often chemoautotrophs)
  46. Microorganisms that grow at pH 9-11

    typicallly found in soda lakes
Card Set
MICR 351 Exam 1 - Set 1
Microbiology 351 Exam 1