CattleII1- Fractures

  1. What regions of the bone can be affected by a fracture?
    diaphysis, metaphysis, physis (Salter Harris)
  2. What Salter Harris fracture is most common in cattle?
    Type II SH- fracture through the growth plate and the metaphysis, sparing the epiphysis
  3. What is a big red flag that a fracture is open?
    blood on the fractured leg, even if bone isn't currently protruding
  4. What is a comminuted fracture?
    more than 2 pieces, fissures
  5. What are the different geometric descriptions of fractures? (3)
    transverse, short vs long oblique, spiral
  6. Why can humeral fractures often be managed conservatively (stall rest, pain management)?
    because there is so much collateral muscle support
  7. Why shouldn't you splint very proximal fractures?
    fulcrum effect- if the splint ends at the fracture, you will concentrate all the forces distal to the point of the fracture, making it worse/displacing the fracture more.
  8. Advantages of internal skeletal fixation. (3)
    better apposition, better alignment, can combine with external coaptation
  9. What are disadvantages of internal skeletal fixation? (2)
    disrupts normal biology of healing, expensive
  10. What are indications for internal skeletal fixation?
    fractures are proximal to mid-radius and mid-tibia and are non-amenable to external coaptation
  11. What are contraindications for internal skeletal fixation? (3)
    open fractures, highly comminuted fractures, highly infected areas
  12. What are advantages of external skeletal fixation? (3)
    preserves normal biology of healing (fracture hematoma), quick application, ability to work with open wounds
  13. Indications for external skeletal fixation. (3)
    fractures that cannot be stabilized with external coaptation and are not suitable for internal fixation, open fractures, highly comminuted fractures
  14. Advantages of transfixation pin cast. (3)
    preserves normal biology of healing, quick application, economical
  15. Disadvantages of transfixation pin cast. (3)
    poor apposition, poor alignment, inability to work with wounds
  16. What is a hanging limb pin cast?
    transfixation pins proximal to fracture and cast incorporates pins and goes all the way down around the foot (no distal pins)- only for distal limb fractures
  17. Don't above the __(2)__ with a cast on a bovine.
    elbow or stifle
  18. What are requirements for casting a fracture in a bovine? (3)
    fracture must have some inherent stability, fracture must be able to be reduced and closed, fracture must be distal enough on limb
  19. Advantages of casts. (3)
    easy, economical, does not disrupt normal biology of healing
  20. Disadvantages of casts. (5)
    alignment/apposition poor, cast scores possible, fracture must be in a certain location, difficult to work with wounds, may outgrow
  21. What forces are neutralized by casts?
    bending force only
  22. What forces are NOT neutralized by casts? (3)
    sheer, rotational, distraction
  23. What is the purpose of Schroeder-Thomas splints? (2)
    helps support animal, applies traction to keep fracture reduced
  24. When can you use hoof blocks?
    fractures and lesions of one digit- place block on opposite toe to take weight off bad toe
  25. What aspects for fracture affect prognosis? (6)
    location (proximal versus distal), fracture configuration and comminution, open vs closed, neurovascular compromise, chronicity, patient age and health
  26. What are the 3 parts of a sequestrum?
    sequestrum (dead piece of bone),involucrum (pocket of fluid or pus surrounding bone), cloaca (tract that communicates with involucrum and communicates with outside)
  27. Sequestra are frequently a complication of __________ fractures.
Card Set
CattleII1- Fractures