Beef Quiz 2

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  1. Factors Affecting Supplementation
    • žForage Quantity
    • žForage Quality
    • žBody Conditionž
    • Body Size
    • žMilking Level ž
    • Age
  2. Protein
    • žAmino Acids
    • ›Rumen degradation of proteins
    • –Microbes – incorporate N and AA–Digested in SI–
    • Adequate for most cattle
  3. Crude Protein
    • žN X 6.25›
    • On average protein contains 16% nitrogen–1/16 = 6.25 %
    • žRuminally Available›For microbes
  4. Crude Protein Classes
    • ›Degradable intake protein (DIP)
    • ›Undegrable intake protein (UIP)
    • ›Metabolizable protein = DIP + UIP
  5. Protein Requirements for Growing heifers, 3rd trimester gestation, and lactating cows
    • žHigher = growing heifers
    • ›Constrained by intake
    • žHigher = 3rd trimester gestation
    • ›Most fetal growthž
    • Higher = lactating cows
    • ›Milk has high protein content
    • ›Early – mid lactation –2x dry cow
    • ›More milk = more protein
  6. Energy
    • žGrazing
    • žTraveling
    • žFetal developmentž
    • Milk production
    • žReproductionž
    • Voiding body of wastes
    • žMore E = thin cows›Restoring body reserves
  7. Where do you get energy from?
    • Get energy from cellulose
    • ›With proper protein and minerals
  8. What happens with too much or too little protein
    • ›Too little protein = microbes can’t function
    • Too much protein = deaminated, E inefficient
  9. What is energy affected by?
    žAffected by weight, gain, lactation, pregnancy, age
  10. Net Energy System
    • Gross Energy
    • -----Fecal Energy
    • Digestible  Energy
    • -----Urinary and Gas Energy
    • Metabolizable Energy
    • -Maintenance---Net Energy----Gain,Lactation
  11. Total Digestible Energy
    žDigestible energy with a correction for protein
  12. Forage DMI in Cows
    • žTDN of forage affects DMI
    • žLess than or = 50% TDN = 1.5% BWž
    • 52-54% TDN = 2% BW
    • ž55-59% TDN = 2.5% BWž
    • Greater than or = 59% TDN = 3% BW
  13. Oilseed Meals
    • Canola, Cottonseed, peanut, soybean meal
    • -loose, pelleted, cubed
    • -high protein, 35-48% CP
    • -Energy medium -> High
    • -Feeding Rate 1-3 lbs/head/day
    • -Dry cows in moderate to good flesh (BCS 4-5) Law protein-Medium Energy
  14. Grains
    • Corn, Oats, Milo, Wheat
    • -Low protein, high energy (8-10%)
    • -can be "cheapest" source
    • -Byproduct gains-wheat midds, rice brain, soybean hulls, cottonseed hulls
    • --slightly higher protein lower energy
  15. Urea
    • žFeedlot rations
    • -›14-25% of total crude protein
    • -0.1 to 0.25 lb/h/d
    • žDry Cows›0.05 lbs/h/d
    • -›Max 20-33% of total N –Feeding harvested forages–
    • -Winter range and low protein supplement
    • -›High CP supplement–
    • -Less than 10% of CP
    • žLactating Cows
    • ›0.05 – 0.10 lb/h/d
  16. Feed Supplementation
    • žOilseed meals
    • žGrain
    • žBreeder/Range Cubesž
    • Protein blocks and liquidsž
    • Lower Protein blocks and tubs
    • žHays
  17. Vital Signs of Beef Cattle
    • Temp. 100.4-102.8 avg. 101.5
    • Pulse 60-70 BPM
    • Respiration 10-30 breaths per minute
  18. Scours
    • Disease complex (group of diseases)
    • -Rota virus, Corona virus, Cyptosporidium parvum, E. coli, Salmonella, coccidiosis
    • Most common in fall, winter and spring
    • Affects young calves
  19. Scours Symptoms
    • Acute
    • –Shock
    • –Nose,
    • -ears and legs are cold
    • –DiarrheaSudden death
    • Chronic
    • –Symptoms for several days
    • –Weight loss
    • –Death after several days if not treated
  20. Scours prevention
    • Sanitation
    • –Clean barns and buckets for bucket calves
    • Calf needs colostrums (first milk)Supplement the cows diet with Vitamin A before calving
    • Vaccines (most common types of scours)–Vaccinate mothers at least 30 days prior to calving
  21. Scours Treatment
    • Antibiotics
    • Sulfa drugs
    • Electrolytes
  22. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)
    • Common throughout the United States
    • May appear in mild, acute & chronic forms
    • Spreads by contact
  23. Mild BVD
    • Often no symptoms
    • If they are present:
    • –Fever
    • –Coughing
    • –Discharge from the nose
    • –Slow gains
    • –Rapid breathing
    • –Mild diarrhea
    • Animals that have had the mild form of the disease are immune to further infection.
  24. Acute BVD
    • Fever
    • Difficult breathing
    • Discharges from the nose and mouth
    • Possible lameness
    • Dehydration
    • Weight loss
    • Diarrhea after 3-7 days
    • Abortion
    • –Contract within first 2 months of pregnancy
    • Mummified Fetus
    • –Contact day 90-120
    • Brain damage, hairlessness, underdeveloped lungs–Later in prenancy
  25. Chronic BVD
    • All the same symptoms as the acute plus
    • –Slow gains
    • –Rough hair coat
    • –Lameness
  26. BVD Prevention
    • Modified live virus vaccine
    • Vaccinate calves Pregnant cattle should not be vaccinated
    • –After calving
    • –At least 3 weeks before breeding
    • Replacement heifers should be 9 - 12 months of age
    • Not during the last 3 weeks before breeding
    • No cure
  27. Shipping Fever (PI3 Pasteurella, Bovine Respiratory Disease)
    • A disease complex that affects the respiratory tract
    • Most common in young cattle at times of stress
  28. Stresses
    • Moving from range to the feedlot
    • Extremes of heat or cold
    • Exhaust fumes
    • Hunger
    • Fright
    • Rough handling
  29. Symptoms of Shipping Fever
    • Early on----fever
    • Depression
    • Drooping ears
    • Discharge from the nose
    • Watery eyes
    • Loss of appetite
    • Diarrhea
    • Weight loss
    • Difficult breathing
    • Coughing
    • Pneumonia
    • Possibly death
    • If the animal recovers it will be slow to gain
  30. Shipping Fever Prevention
    • Vaccination after 4 mo. of age
    • Best time is 3-4 weeks before weaning/shipping
    • Reducing stress and exposure
    • Good feedlot management and careful handling of new cattle
  31. Shipping Fever Treatment
    • Antibiotics
    • Sulfa drugs
    • Treatment must begin as soon as symptoms are noticed.
    • Treatment after an animal has developed pneumonia is of little value.
  32. Blackleg
    • Caused by anerobic bacteria
    • When exposed to air the bacteria form a spore –may live in the soil for many years
    • Spores enter the animal through the mouth or wounds
    • Young animals are more commonly affected
  33. Blackleg Symptoms
    • First sign is one or more animals suddenly die
    • Before death symptoms are:
    • –Lameness
    • –Swollen muscles
    • –Severe depression
    • –High fever (in early stages)
    • –Animal may be unable to stand
  34. Blackleg Prevention
    • Vaccination
    • Calves are vaccinated when young and boostered
    • Dead animals should be burned or buried
  35. Blackleg Treatment
    • Treatment is only effective if diagnosed early–
    • Penicillin
    • Prevention is more effective and less costly.
  36. Foot Rot
    • Caused by bacteria, fungi and others
    • Skin of the foot is broken -> enters
    • Muddy, manure filled lots increase the problem
  37. Foot Rot Symptoms
    • First noticeable sign is lameness
    • Other symptoms
    • –Loss of appetite
    • –Fever
    • –Depression
    • –Not want to stand or move around
    • –Smell
  38. Foot Rot Prevention
    • Sanitation and paved lots work best
    • Good drainage and mounds in the lot
    • Spreading lime around water tanks and feed bunks
  39. Foot Rot Treatment
    • Penicillin
    • Wide spectrum antibiotics
    • –tetracycline
    • Sulfa drugs
  40. Digital Dermatitis
    • Hairy heel wart
    • Poor hygiene, wet conditions
    • Lesion between digits of foot
    • Highly contagious
    • Very painful
    • Exact cause unknown
  41. Lump Jaw
    • Chronic Rarely causes death
    • Results in economic losses because the affected body part is condemned at slaughter
    • Affects the jaw and surrounding bony part of the head
  42. Lump Jaw Symptoms
    • Tumors or lumps on the jaw.
    • Loose teeth
    • Spongy jaw bone resulting in breathing problems.
    • Weight loss due to difficulty eating
  43. Lump Jaw Treatments and Prevention
    • Surgical treatment may allow the animal to remain marketable but complete recovery is usually not possible.
    • To prevent keep sharp objects out of the feedlot or pasture.
  44. Pinkeye
    • Carried by insects
    • Affects the eye of the animal
    • A viral form of pink eye is associated with IBR
    • White faced cattle and those with pink skin pigment
    • Pinkeye occurs year round but is most common during periods of maximum sunlight.
  45. Pink Eye is spread by
    • Insects
    • Direct Contact with infected animals
    • Dust
    • Tail switching
  46. Pink Eye Prevention
    • Vaccinate 
    • Control Flies
  47. Pink Eye Treatment
    • Isolated in a dark place
    • Apply Antibiotics – penicillin
    • A cloth patch can be used on the affected eye
  48. Trichomoniasis
    • A venereal disease caused by a protozoan, Trichomona fetus
    • Infects the genital tract of the bull and is transmitted to the cow during breeding
    • Clean bulls can also be infected by breeding “dirty” cows
    • Can also be transmitted through infected semen, even when artificial insemination is used.
  49. Trichomoniasis Symptoms
    • Abortion in early gestation
    • Low fertility
    • Irregular heat periods
    • Uterine infection
    • Cows may have discharge from their genital tract
    • Bulls may not show any symptoms but still be capable of transmitting the disease during breeding
    • Identified by microscopic examination of material from an aborted fetus, the prepuital cavity of the bull or vaginal discharge from the cow
  50. Trich Prevention
    • Semen testing
    • Testing cows before breeding
    • Using only clean bulls on clean cows
    • Selling all open cows
  51. Vibriosis
    • Reproductive disease
    • Both intestinal and venereal
    • Leading cause of infertility and abortion in the cattle industry
  52. Vibrosis
    • Intestinal form has little harmful effect
    • Venereal form is more serious
    • If the organism infects the uterus there will be some abortion in the herd
    • Number of cows infected is usually small
    • Cows do not become sterile and bulls are not affected.
  53. Vibrosis Symptoms
    • Infertility
    • Abortion
    • Irregular heat periods
    • In newly affected herds conception rates may drop below 40%
    • Calving season is longer
    • More open cows in the fall
  54. Vibrosis Prevention and Treatment
    • Vaccinate animals 30 days prior to breeding
    • ▫Vaccination must be repeated every year
    • Bulls may be treated with antibiotics but the process is difficult
    • Cows may settle easier if treated with antibiotics
    • Skipping two heat cycles before attempting to breed the cow usually improves the conception rate of infected cows
    • Cows with the disease eventually develop immunity and will breed again
    • The use of AI helps in prevention because the semen used for AI is treated with antibiotics to eliminate disease organisms.
  55. Ringworm
    • A contagious skin disease that can be spread to other animals and humans
    • Symptoms
    • –Round, scaly patches of skin that lack hair
    • -The affected area clears up but moves to another part of the body
    • Sanitation
    • Isolate infected animals
    • Treat with iodine tincture or quaternary ammonium compounds
  56. Brucellosis
    • Caused by microorganisms
    • Results in heavy economic losses
    • Less common due to state and federal eradication programs—all states are now free of brucellosis in domestic cattle herds
    • Dangerous to humans
  57. Brucellosis Spreads By...
    • Introducing infected cattle
    • Fence line contact
    • Dam to calf
    • Feed or water where the organism is present
    • Sniffing or licking an aborted fetus or calf from a cow that has the disease
  58. Brucellosis Symptoms
    • Abortion during the last ½ of pregnancy
    • Retaining of afterbirth (placenta)
    • Sterility in cows and bulls
    • Reduced milk flow
    • Enlarged testicles
    • Weak calves (if born from infected cows)
  59. Brucellosis Prevention and Cure
    • No cure
    • Prevention is accomplished by good herd management
    • –Vaccinate
    • Before heifers turn 1 year of age
  60. Anaplasmosis
    • Infects the red blood cells
    • –Severe anemia, weakness, fever, lack of appetite, depression, decreased milk production, and death
    • Particularly recognized–Gulf coast and Western States
    • Tick borne disease–Rocky Mountain Wood tick–
    • Other ticks and ways
    • Rarely effects cattle < 1 year old
    • Rarely fatal in 2 year olds
    • Sometimes fatal in 3 year olds
    • Often fatal in older animals
    • Once animal recovers from disease–Immune–Carrier
  61. Anaplasmosis Prevention
    • Preventation
    • Vaccine
    • –Two dose lifetime prevention
    • Treatment
    • –Tetracycline
    • Cattle can recover if treated soon
  62. Foothill Abortion
    • Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA)
    • Abortion rates up to 50%
    • Summer grazing
    • –Sierra Nevada Mountains
    • –Great Basin Regions of CA
    • –Also in Southern OR and NV
    • Tick borne - Pajahuello
  63. Foothill Abortion For EBA to occur..
    • 1.Less than 6 months pregnant
    • 2.Ticks present and hungry
    • 3.No previous exposure to the disease
    • 4.Ambient temp must be warm and dry
    • Then abortion occurs 3-4 months later
  64. Foothill Abortion Prevention
    • Prevention
    • –Management
    • – location of cattle
    • –Expose young cattle
    • –VaccinationUC Davis
Author
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315134
Card Set
Beef Quiz 2
Description
ASCI 311 Advanced Beef Production Quiz 2
Updated
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