PC Ch7 Glossary

  1. Active Directory
    A Windows server directory database and service that is used in managing a domain to allow for a single point of administration for all shared resources on a network, including files, peripheral devices, databases, web sites, users, and services.
  2. Administrator account
    In Windows, a user account that grants to the administrator(s) rights and privileges to all hardware and software resources, such as the right to add, delete, and change accounts and to change hardware configurations.
  3. answer file
    A text file that contains information that Windows requires in order to do an unattended installation.
  4. batch file
    A text file containing a series of OS commands. Autoexec.bat is a batch file.
  5. boot loader menu
    A startup menu that gives the user the choice of which operating system to load, such as Windows XP or Windows 7 which are both installed on the same system, creating a dual boot.
  6. Certificate of Authenticity
    A sticker that contains the Windows product key.
  7. clean install
    Used to overwrite the existing operating system and applications when installing Windows on a hard drive.
  8. client/server
    A computer concept whereby one computer (the client) requests information from another computer (the server).
  9. compatibility mode
    A group of settings that can be applied to older drivers or applications that might cause them to work in Windows using a newer version of Windows than the one the programs were designed to use.
  10. custom installation
    In the Windows setup program, the option used to overwrite the existing operating system and applications, producing a clean installation of the OS. The main advantage is that problems with the old OS are not carried forward.
  11. Device Manager
    Primary Windows tool for managing hardware.
  12. disk cloning
    See drive imaging.
  13. distribution server
    A file server holding Windows setup files used to install Windows on computers networked to the server.
  14. distribution share
    The collective files in the installation that include Windows, device drivers, and applications. The package of files is served up by a distribution server.
  15. domain
    In Windows, a logical group of networked computers, such as those on a college campus, that share a centralized directory database of user account information and security for the entire domain.
  16. drive imaging
    Making an exact image of a hard drive, including partition information, boot sectors, operating system installation, and application software to replicate the hard drive on another system or recover from a hard drive crash. Also called disk cloning or disk imaging.
  17. dual boot
    The ability to boot using either of two different OSs, such as Windows XP and Windows 7. Also called multiboot.
  18. file system
    The overall structure that an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a disk. Examples of file systems are NTFS and FAT32. Windows is always installed on a volume that uses the NTFS file system.
  19. Files and Settings Transfer Wizard
    A Windows XP tool used to copy user data and settings from one computer to another.
  20. global account
    Sometimes called a domain user account or network account, the account is used at the domain level, created by an administrator, and stored in the SAM (security accounts manager) database on a Windows domain controller.
  21. high-touch using a standard image
    A strategy to install Windows that uses a standard image for the installation. A technician must perform the installation on the local computer. Also see standard image.
  22. high-touch with retail media
    A strategy to install Windows where all the work is done by a technician sitting at the computer using Windows setup files. The technician also installs drivers and applications after the Windows installation is finished.
  23. homegroup
    A type of peer-to-peer network where each computer shares files, folders, libraries, and printers with other computers in the homegroup. Access to the homegroup is secured using a homegroup password.
  24. image deployment
    Installing a standard image on a computer.
  25. ImageX
    A program included in the Windows Automated Installation Kit that is used to create and modify standard images.
  26. in-place upgrade
    A Windows installation that is launched from the Windows desktop. The installation carries forward user settings and installed applications from the old OS to the new one. A Windows OS is already in place before the installation begins.
  27. ISO image
    An International Organization for Standardization image that contains an image of a disc, including the file system used.
  28. lite-touch, high-volume deployment
    A strategy that uses a deployment server on the network to serve up a Windows installation after a technician starts the process at the local computer.
  29. loadstate
    A command used by the User State Migration Tool (USMT) to copy user settings and data temporarily stored on a server or removable media to a new computer. Also see scanstate.
  30. local account
    A Windows user account that applies only to the local computer and cannot be used to access resources from other computers on the network. Compare to global account.
  31. logical topology
    The logical way computers connect on a network.
  32. Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit
    Software that can be used by a system administrator from a network location to query hundreds of computers in a single scan to determine if a computer qualifies for a Windows upgrade.
  33. multiboot
    See dual boot.
  34. OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) license
    A software license that only manufacturers or builders of personal computers can purchase to be installed only on a computer intended for sale.
  35. partition
    A division of a hard drive that can hold volumes. Using the MBR system, Windows can support up to four partitions on one hard drive.
  36. peer-to-peer (P2P)
    As applied to networking, a network of computers that are all equals, or peers. Each computer has the same amount of authority, and each can act as a server to the other computers.
  37. physical topology
    The physical arrangement of connections between computers.
  38. PXE
    Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE, also known as the Pre-Execution Environment) Programming contained in the BIOS code on the motherboard used to start up the computer and search for a server on the network to provide a bootable operating system.
  39. product activation
    The process that Microsoft uses to prevent software piracy. For example, once Windows 7 is activated for a particular computer, it cannot be legally installed on another computer.
  40. Programs and Features
    A window within the Control Panel that lists the programs installed on a computer where you can uninstall, change, or repair programs.
  41. pull automation
    A Windows installation that requires the local user to start the process. Compare to push automation.
  42. push automation
    An installation where a server automatically pushes the installation to a computer when a user is not likely to be sitting at the computer. Compare to pull automation.
  43. remote network installation
    An automated installation where no user intervention is required.
  44. scanstate
    A command used by the User State Migration Tool (USMT) to copy user settings and data from an old computer to a server or removable media. Also see loadstate.
  45. setup BIOS
    Used to change motherboard settings. For example, you can use it to enable or disable a device on the motherboard, change the date and time that is later passed to the OS, and select the order of boot devices for startup BIOS to search when looking for an operating system to load.
  46. standard image
    An image that includes Windows 7, drivers, and applications that are standard to all the computers that might use the image.
  47. startup BIOS
    Part of system BIOS that is responsible for controlling the PC when it is first turned on. Startup BIOS gives control over to the OS once it is loaded.
  48. system BIOS
    (basic input/output system) BIOS located on the motherboard that is used to control essential devices before the OS is loaded.
  49. unattended installation
    A Windows installation that is done by storing the answers to installation questions in a text file or script that Windows calls an answer file so that the answers do not have to be typed in during the installation.
  50. upgrade paths
    A qualifying OS required by Microsoft in order to perform an in-place upgrade.
  51. User State Migration Tool (USMT)
    A Windows utility that helps you migrate user files and preferences from one computer to another to help a user make a smooth transition from one computer to another.
  52. virtual machine (VM)
    One or more logical machines created within one physical machine.
  53. volume
    A primary partition that has been assigned a drive letter and can be formatted with a file system such as NTFS. Compare to logical drive.
  54. Windows Automated Installation Kit (AIK)
    The Windows AIK for Windows 7 contains a group of tools used to deploy Windows 7 in a large organization and contains the User State Migration Tool (USMT).
  55. Windows Easy Transfer
    A Windows tool used to transfer Windows 7/Vista/XP user data and preferences to the Windows 7/Vista/XP installation on another computer.
  56. Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE)
    A minimum operating system used to start the Windows installation.
  57. workgroup
    In Windows, a logical group of computers and users in which administration, resources, and security are distributed throughout the network, without centralized management or security.
  58. zero-touch, high-volume deployment
    An installation strategy that does not require the user to start the process. Instead a server pushes the installation to a computer when a user is not likely to be sitting at it.
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PC Ch7 Glossary
PC Ch7 Glossary