Surgery Dr Q: Cardio/Resp Review

  1. Flow of blood
    Cranial and Caudal Vena Cava – Right Auricle –Right Atrium– Tricuspid Valve – Right Ventricle – Pulmonary Valve – Pulmonary Artery – Lungs – Pulmonary Vein – Left Auricle – Left Atrium – Mitral Valve – Left Ventricle –Aortic Valve- Aorta – Great Arteries –Arteries - Arterioles – Capillaries – Venules – Veins – Vena Cavas
  2. Only valve that has 2 cusps
    Mitral valve
  3. Right side heart failure
    Dirofilaria immitis  (Heartworms)

    • Reverse D on ventral dorsal radiograph 
    • Caval syndrome 
    • Pulmonary inflammation
  4. Left side heart failures
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Decreased cardiac output
    • Increased size of left heart
  5. Entire heart failues
    • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (cats)
    • -ventricles thickened 
    • Dilative cardiomyopathy (dogs)
    • -ventricular walls weak and flaccid
  6. Valves fail to close completely
  7. Valvular insufficiency
    If a valve fails to close completely permitting blood to flow backwards in the wrong direction
  8. Most common valve insufficiency
    Mitral insufficiency
  9. P wave of an ECG
    Atrial depolarization
  10. P-R segment of a ECG
    Filling time for the ventricle
  11. QRS complex of an ECG
    • Ventricular depolarization
    • Atrial repolarization
  12. S-T segment of an ECG
    Filling time for the atrium
  13. T wave of an ECG
    Ventricular repolarization
  14. What two systems generate blood pressure
    • General vascular system- left ventricle 
    • Pulmonary vascular system- right ventricle
  15. Blood pressure on the arterial side is maintained by
    • Cardiac output
    • Peripheral vascular resistance
  16. Starlings law
    As the heart rate increases, the cardiac output will increase up to a point. When the heart rate exceeds the ability of the ventricles to fill during diastole, the cardiac output fails
  17. Venous circulation return to the heart controlled by
    • Inspiration
    • Venous contraction 
    • Valves
    • Heart beat, activity, peristalsis of GI tract
  18. Synaptic transmitter that secrete acetylcholine are...c
  19. Synaptic transmitter that secrete nor-epinephrine are...
  20. Rest and restore, secrete acetylcholine and are cholinergic
  21. Fight or flight, secrete nor-epinephrine and are adrenergic
  22. Agonists
    Bind and take action/stimulate
  23. Antagonists
    Bind and block stimulation
  24. Two types of adrenergic receptors
    • Alpha
    • Beta
  25. Catecholamines
    • Epinephrine
    • Nor-epinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • L-Dopa
    • Dopaminogenic
  26. Two effects produced by catecholamines
    • Constriction
    • Dilation
  27. Alpha receptors are sensitive to what?
    Both epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
  28. Beta receptors are sensitive to what?
  29. Alpha receptors are mainly...
    Stimulatory with the exception of those in the intestinal smooth muscle
  30. Beta receptors are mainly...
    Inhibitory, with the exception of those in cardiac muscle
  31. Anticholinergics
    • Atropine
    • Glycopyrrolate
  32. Alpha 1 Agonists
    • Nor-epinephrine
    • Epinephrine
    • Dopamine
  33. Alpha 1 antagonists
    • Phenoxybenzamine
    • Tolazoline
  34. Alpha 2 agonists
    • Dexmedetomidine
    • Dopamine
    • Epinephrine
    • Xylazine
  35. Alpha 2 antagonists
    • Atipamezole
    • Mirtazapine
  36. What is shock
    Reduced cardiac output and vasodilatation.
  37. What determines the blood pressure in the vascular system?
    • Cardiac output
    • Peripheral vascular resistance
  38. Anaphylaxis
    • Inject foreign protein (e.g. penicillin
    • Histamine release (Mast Cells/Basophils)
    • Vasodilatation of capillaries
    • Increase capillary permeability
    • Blood plasma moves into tissues
    • Decrease blood volume
    • Reduced blood flow >Hypoxia>Death
  39. Degrees of shock
    • Compensatory
    • Progressive
    • Irreversible
  40. Compensatory phase of shock
    All arterioles except coronary and cerebral vessels constrict to maintain arterial pressure. Elevation of pulse & increase in cardiac output.
  41. Progressive phase of shock
    Heart cannot pump sufficiently due to fatigue. Decrease cardiac output and 02 to the alveoli & respiratory center causing vasodilatation.
  42. Irreversible phase of shock
    Heart cannot be fixed. No treatment
  43. Treatment of shock
    • IV fluids
    • Oxygen- helps cell metabolize and heal
    • Warmth
    • Analgesics
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dobutamine
    • Minimum database
    • Dexamethasone is all else fails
Card Set
Surgery Dr Q: Cardio/Resp Review
Dr Q Cardio/Resp Review