1. Anatomy
    scientific discipline that investigates the bodies structure
  2. Physiology
    scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
  3. Exercise physiology
    changes in function and structure caused by exercise
  4. Pathology
    study of structural and functional changes caused by disease
  5. Exercise Physiology
    changes in structure and function caused by exercise
  6. Structural & functional organizations
    • 1. Atoms
    • 2. Molecules
    • 3. Cells
    • 4. Tissue 
    • 5. Organ
    • 6. Organ system
    • 7. Organism
  7. Atoms
    • smallest unit of matter
    • matter is anything that occupies space and has a mass
  8. Molecules
    collection of atoms
  9. Cells
    smallest unit of life
  10. Tissue
    collections of [similar] cells
  11. Organ
    collections of tissues
  12. Organ system
    collection of organs
  13. Organism
    collection of different organ systems
  14. Integumentary system
    • regulates body temperature
    • the skin (integumentary), liver (digestive), and kidneys (urinary) assist to produce Vitamin D.
    • Skin (dermis and hypodermis)
    • Hair
    • Glands (sweat and sebaceous)
    • Arrector pili
  15. Skeletal system
    • function is frame work structure, protect vital organs, produce blood cells
    • blood cells are: red, white, and platelets
    • red bone marrow produces: red, white, and platelets
    • yellow bone marrow: produces a lot of lipids
    • the muscles (muscular system) and nerves (nervous system) assist moving the skeletal system
    • Bones produce blood cells
    • Ligaments are bone to bone attachment
    • Joints are two bones joint together by ligaments
    • Cartilages are tip of bones
  16. Muscular system
    • function: assist body temp control by shivering with muscle contraction, body movement with the nervous system assistance
    • Tendon attach muscle to bones
    • Skeletal muscle  
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle
  17. Lymphatic system
    • Lymphatic cells (lymph-o-cytes)
    • Lymph-fluid reside within tissues
    • functions: drain lymph-fluid from tissues to bring it back to the heart, provide immunity, and ONLY lipids are observed by the lymphatic system NOT carbs or proteins
    • Lymph vessels
    • Lymph tissues and organs
  18. Respiratory system
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Larynx (voice box)
    • Trachea (windpipe)
    • Bronchial tree
    • Lungs
    • functions: inhale and exhale breathing is known as ventilation. breathe-in oxygen and breath-out carbon dioxide known as gas exchange (respiration). 
    • Lungs (respiratory system) helps regulation of blood PH with the help of kidneys (Urinary system)
    • Lungs houses an enzyme (ACE) that is mainly found in the lungs to help regulate blood pressure if elevated an ACE inhibitor can be given
  19. Digestive system
    • Digestive tract: Oral cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Rectum, and Anus
    • Accessory structure: Teeth, Tongue, and Salivary glands
    • Major structures: liver, gallbladder, and pancreas feeding into the digestive tract.
    • Ingestion: consumption
    • Digestion: chew or mastication
    • Absorption: extract nutrients from carb, proteins, and lipids.
    • Excursion, defecation, or elimination
  20. Nervous system
    • Brain
    • Brainstem
    • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nerves
    • Receptors
    • functions: sense EXTERNAL and INTERNAL environment
  21. Endocrine system
    • structures (1-6) which produce HORMONES:
    • 1. hypothalamus, 2. pituitary gland, 3. pineal gland, 4. thyroid gland, 5. parathyroid (around) gland, 6. thalamus gland
    • A. Glands
    • B. Tissues
    • C. Organs
    • D. Ovaries- Dual system that produce estrogen and adrenal gland (located above the kidney)
    • E. Pancreas
    • F. Testes- testosterone and sperm cells
  22. Cardiovascular system
    • Heart
    • Blood 
    • Blood Vessels
    • Function: transport structures such as glucose, electrolytes, respiratory gases, and waste products.
  23. Urinary system
    • Kidney: excrete waste products
    • Ureter: regulate electrolytes and blood PH
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
  24. Reproductive system
    • Function: only to reproduce
    • Sex cell (gametes)
    •   Female (oocyte or egg)
    •   Male (sperm)
    • Sex organs (gonads)
    •   Female (ovary)
    •   Male (testis)
    • Tubular system
    •   Female (fallopian tube)
    •   Male (vas deferens, ejaculatory, duct, and urethra)
    • Other structures
    •   Females (uterus and vagina)
    •   Male (seminal vesicle, prostate, and penis)
  25. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
    Liver and Gallbladder
  26. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
  27. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
  28. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
  29. Visceral membrane
  30. Parietal membrane
  31. Pleura
  32. Peritoneum (abdominopelvic)
  33. Mesenteries
    only found in the abdonimopelvic cavity
  34. Supine
  35. Prone
  36. Superior
    towards the upper portion of the body
  37. Inferior
    towards the lower portion of the body
  38. Intermediate
    In between 2 structures
  39. Caudal
    towards the tail end of the body
  40. Medial
    towards the midline of the body
  41. Lateral
    away from the midline of the body
  42. Proximal
    close to an origin of a structure or an attachment of a joint to the body
  43. Distal
    far from an origin of a structure or an attachment of a joint to the body
  44. Superficial
    near the surface of the skin
  45. Deep
    away from the surface of the skin
  46. Ipsilateral
    on the same side of the body or midline
  47. Contralateral
    on the opposite of the body or midline
  48. Anterior (ventral)
    towards the front of the body
  49. Posterior (dorsal)
    towards the back of the body
  50. Cephalad/cephalic (head)
    towards the head region
  51. Clavicular
  52. Occipital
    posterior base of skull
  53. Frontal
  54. Orbital
  55. Nasal
  56. Oral
  57. Otic
  58. Nuchal
    posterior neck
  59. Buccal
  60. Mental
  61. Cervical
    anterior neck
  62. Pectoral
  63. Sternal
    breast bone
  64. Manual
  65. Mammary
  66. Abdominal
  67. Umbilical
  68. Coxal
  69. Inguinal
  70. Pubic
  71. Axillary
    arm pit
  72. Brachial
  73. Antecubital
    anterior surface of elbow
  74. Antebrachial
  75. Olecranal
  76. Carpal
  77. Palmar
    palm of hand
  78. Digits (phalanges)
    fingers and toes
  79. Femoral
  80. Patellar
  81. Crural
    anterior leg (shin)
  82. Tarsal
  83. Digits (phalanges)
  84. Occipital
    posterior base of skull
  85. Nuchal
    posterior neck
  86. Acromial
    point of shoulder
  87. Scapular
    shoulder blades
  88. Vertebral
    spinal column
  89. Lumbar
    lower back
  90. Sacral
    between posterior hip
  91. Gluteal
  92. Olecranon
  93. Dorsum of the foot
    top of foot
  94. Umbilical
  95. Pedal
  96. Dorsum of hand
    back of hand
  97. Popliteal
    posterior knee
  98. Sural
    posterior leg (calf)
  99. Plantar
    sole of foot
  100. Calcaneal
  101. Sagittal
    unequal right/left
  102. Midsagittal (median)
  103. Transverse (cross-section)
  104. Frontal (coronal)
    • front/back
    • anterior/posterior
    • ventral/dorsal
  105. Posterior Cavities
    • Cranial cavity
    • Spinal cavity
  106. Anterior cavities
    • 1. Thoracic cavity
    •  a. Mediastinum
    •  b. Pleural cavity
    • 2. Abdominal cavity
    • 3. Pelvic cavity
Card Set
Anatomy/Physiology I