GY 105 Chapter 3 Vocab

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  1. Acid rain
    industrially produced sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere that damage forests, poison lakes, and kill fish
  2. Boreal forest
    coniferous evergreen forest
  3. Connectivity
    how well its different locations became linked with one another through improved transportation and communications networks
  4. Cultural assimilation
    process in which immigrants were absorbed by the larger host society
  5. Cultural homeland
    culturally distinctive settlement in a well-defined geographic area, and its ethnicity has survived over time, stamping the landscape with an enduring personality
  6. Edge cities
    suburban node of activity that features a mix of peripheral retailing, industrial parks, office complexes, and entertainment facilities
  7. Ethnicity
    people with a common background and history identify with one another, often as a minority group within a larger society
  8. Federal states
    nation allocate considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level
  9. Gender gap
    the difference in parity or equity between males and females in a specific social or cultural context. A term often used to describe gender differences in salary, working conditions, or political power
  10. Gentrification
    displacement of lower-income residents of central-city neighborhoods by higher-income residents, the improvement of deteriorated inner-city landscapes, and the construction of shopping complexes, sports and entertainment attractions, and convention centers in selected downtown locations
  11. Group of Eight (G8)
    a collection of economically powerful countries (US, Canada, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia) that regularly meets for discussions on key global economic and political issues
  12. Location factors
    varied influences that explain why an economic activity is located where it is
  13. Megalopolis
    A large urban region formed as multiple cities grow and merge with one another. The term is often applied to the string of cities in eastern North America that includes Washington, DC; Baltimore; Philadelphia; New York City; and Boston
  14. New urbanism
    an urban design movement stressing higher density, mixed-use, pedestrian-scaled neighborhoods where residents can walk to work, school and entertainment
  15. Nonmetropolitan growth
    people leave large cities and move to smaller towns and rural areas
  16. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    An agreement made in 1994 between Canada, the United States, and Mexico that established a 15-year-plan for reducing all barriers to trade among the three countries
  17. Outsourcing
    a business practice that transfers portions of a company’s production and service activities to lower cost settings, often located overseas
  18. Postindustrial economy
    human geographies are shaped by modern technology, innovative information services, and a popular culture that dominates both North America and the world beyond
  19. Prairie
    an extensive area of grassland in North America. In the more humid eastern portions, grasses are usually longer than in the drier western areas, which are in the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountain range
  20. Renewable energy sources
    an energy source such as hydroelectric, solar, wind, and geothermal that is known for its enduring availability and its potentially lower environmental costs
  21. Sectoral transformation
    evolution of a nation’s labor force from one dependent on the primary sector to one with more employment in the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
  22. Spanglish
    a hybrid combination of English and Spanish
  23. Sustainable agriculture
    where organic farming principles, a limited use of chemicals, and an integrated plan of crop and livestock management combine to offer both producers and consumers environmentally friendly alternatives
  24. Tundra
    mixture of low shrubs, grasses, and flowering herbs that grow briefly in the short growing seasons of the high latitudes
  25. Unitary state
    power is centralized at the national level
  26. Urban decentralization
    metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many of the characteristics of traditional downtowns
  27. Urban heat island
    for built-up cities in which development associated with cities often produces nighttime temperatures some 9 to 14oF warmer than those of nearby rural areas
  28. World Trade Organization (WTO)
    dedicated to reducing global trade barriers
Card Set
GY 105 Chapter 3 Vocab
GY 105 Chapter 3 Vocab
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