- 1. campus administrator
- 2. certified teacher assigned to ESL
- 3. parent of a LEP student (may not be a district employee)
- All must receive training (translated if necessary). Translator available.
Varies in amount/types of scaffolding used to help ESL Ss make sense of what they read. Scaffolding uses diagrams, drawings, discussions of similar experiences/stories, analogies, and hands-on activities to provide a better understanding of what they read.
ESL Entry Criteria
- 1. When at least one answer of HLS is not English, OLPT given w/in 4 weeks
- 2. Scores below 40% on reading and English language arts
- 3. Parental permission w/in 10 days of committee recommendation
ESL Exit Criteria
- 1. Parents notified w/in 10 days of exit
- 2. Passes English criterion Reference Test when available (reading and writing)
- 3. OR at/above 40% on both English reading and Language Arts sections of Norm Referenced test
Why is it important?
- Home Language Survey
- It is important because it determines whether or not a student is placed in an ESL program.
- Students 9-12 authorized to sign HLS.
What is it?
Why is it important?
- Oral Language Proficiency Test
- 1. test given when a student scores below 40% on reading and English language arts TEA-approved norm referenced measure.
- 2. It is important because it determines ESL placement.
What is it?
- Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
- 1. Social/Conversational language
- 2. Language for everyday situations
- 3. ~2 years to reach monolingual context-embedded proficiency (a handshake can easily be related to words of welcome)
- 1. Required of all LPAC committee members
- 2. Must be developed in parent member's primary language if s/he does not understand English
- 3. Translator should be available
Parental Rights and Responsibilities for Placement
- 1. Must be notified w/in days of LPAC recommendation
- 2. Must approve their child's placement in ESL program
- 3. Must be provided program information and its benefits
What is it?
- Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
- 1. Language for cognitive/academic learning
- 2. ~5-7 years to reach same level of proficiency in context-reduced language (concept cannot be understood based on environment, must be learned)
- Embedded - learner can figure out what is being communicated from the context or situation.
- Reduced - learner must understand what is going on based purely on what is either written or spoken. They don't receive any clues from the environment.
L1 and L2 Relationship
- 1. Skills developed in L1 transfer to L2
- 2. L2 skills are the base to succeed academically in target language (L2)
- 3. In deep structures, languages are interdependent
- 1. Grammatical rule, example sentences, bilingual vocabulary list, reading section exemplifying rules, practice using them
- 2. Taught in Ss first language
- 3. Provides little opportunity for acquisition, relies heavily on learning.
- 1. Examples of language to inductively teach grammar - all discussion in target language
- 2. Questions about relevant topics, using grammatical structure in conversation
- 3. Accuracy sought, errors corrected
- 4. Better than others - too much grammar
- 1. Dialogue with grammar, vocab in lesson
- 2. Ss mimic, memorized dialogue; pattern drills reinforce grammatical structure of dialogue (repetition, translation, etc.)
- 3. No comparison to newer comprehensible input, low-filter environments
- 1. Focuses on developing all 4 skills (language, listening, reading, writing)
- 2. Focuses on communicative competence
- 3. learning overemphasized
- 4. Better than grammar-translation, but newer methods provide better results
- 1. Also known as Total Physical Response
- 2. Ss listen, respond to commands (walk, sit)
- 3. Ss speech delayed; when willing to talk give commands to other Ss
- 4. Substantial L2 acquisition predicted
- 5. Better than audio-lingual and Gram-trans
- 1. Small, intensive class; focus on low-stress attractive environment
- 2. L1 used at beginning, but most in L2
- 3. Teacher role-create right atmosphere, acting out dialogues of core content
- 4. Provides optimal input, less grammar
- 1. Teacher speaks only L2
- 2. Ss may use L1 or L2, speech errors not corrected; grammar homework corrected
- 3. Emphasis use of language to talk about ideas, perform tasks, solve problems
- 4. Great but limited interest, relevance
- Smalles unit of sound
- Language are dynamic and differ in this way
/p/ put /c/ cat
- Smallest unit of meaning
- Languages are dynamic and differ in this way
Acquisition vs. Learning
- Acquisition - subconscious, similar to way children acquire native language, internalize grammatical structures in predictable natural order. Errors = developmental process
- Learning - explicit set of rules/grammar-classroom instruction
- Language Acquisition Device Theory
- Language is innately determined from within rather than by external factors.
- 1. Ability to distinguish language from other sounds
- 2. Ability to organize linguistic events into various classes later defined
Functions of Language
- Instrumental - personal needs
- Regulatory - control behavior of others
- Personal - tell about themselves
- Interactional - get along with others
- Heuristic - learn about things
- Imaginative - make believe
- Informative - communicate information to others
- 1. Elements that affect acquisition of language: anxiety, self-image, interest & motivation
- 2. Provide low-level stress, interesting environment, avoid correcting and embarrassing Ss
- 1. Grammatical structures are acquired in natural order
- 2. Conscious knowledge comes later as editor of linguistic output
- 3. To work, speaker must be concerned with correctness, know rules, have sufficient time to apply rules
2nd Language Hypothesis
There are 2 separate process for the development of proficiency in L2: Acquisition and Learning
- 1. Ss read with partners or small groups
- 2. Teacher reads interesting books aloud to class - models language usage
- 3. A method that leaves blanks in a sentence or passage to be filled in by Ss. Can be presented orally or written.
Total Physical Response
Cognitive Academic Language
- 1. Involves listening/responding to commands given by a teacher
- 2. Ss speech is delayed, wait for Ss willingness to speak
- 3. Theory predicts that TPR (Total Physical Response) should result in substantial language acquisition
- 1. ESL Ss acquire language b comprehending what is being communicated
- 2. Comprehensible input must be provided by teachers
Referred to as transition or bridge classes. Students cover the same content areas as English only classes but they do so in a manner that adapts the language components of the classes to meet the needs of the language minority students' English proficiency levels
- Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
- Attention to content objective, language objectives, background knowledge, interaction and meaningful activities
- Developed to facilitate quality instruction of ELLs in content area teaching
Sheltered English Strategies
- oral reports
- Role playing
- Paraphrasing stories
8 components fo SIOP model
- Preparation: Define content, language, age appropriate concepts
- Building Background: link past learning and new concepts and students background experience
- Comprehensible Input: speak appropriately, model , visuals, etc
- Strategies: GIST, SQ3R, Reciprocal teaching
- Interaction: wait time, various grouping strategies, clarification via bilingual paraprofessionals, native language texts
- Practice/Application: Hands on materials, activities, integrate all language skills
- Lesson Delivery: Appropriate pace, clearly support content and language objectives engage students 90-100% of the lesson (less teacher talk)
- Review Assessment: Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and concepts regular feedback on their output, various assessments
- Survey - look over a chapter or work to gain an overall impression
- Question - Students should pose questions that they want to read and answer
- Read - Students should rad the chapter or section and try to answer their previous questions
- Recite - If this was done in sections, students recite or report the important information
- Review - Once the entire work is complete students review the important concepts, events, generalizations
- Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text
- A strategy that can be used to improve the students ability to identify the gist or main ideas of a paragraph
- Steps in summary
- 1. Choose an appropriate paragraph
- 2. Students read the first sentence
- 3. Have the students retell the sentece in their own words. Their retelling needs to be fewer than 15 words long. (Write the 1st sentient with blank lines so that the students can write their retelling.O) This is first modeled on a projector or white board
- 4. Repeat this procedure for the entire paragraph
- 5. Move beyond sentence by sentece summarization and have the students summarize on their own.