Microbiology Test 1

  1. Microorganism
    a rapidly growing cell, organisms to small to be seen with the unaided eye, e.g. bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoans, and viruses
  2. Microbes Daily Applications Part 1
    • -assisting in recycling of nutrients
    • -efficient decomposers
    • -nitrogen fixation
    • -photosynthesis
    • -digestion and synthesis of vitamins
  3. Microbes Daily Applications Part 2
    • -commercial application
    • -penicillin
    • -stone washed jeans
  4. Microbes Daily Applications Part 3
    • -food industry
    • -bread, beer, cheese, yogurt
  5. Microbes Daily Applications Part 4
    • -recombinant technology
    • -GM organisms
  6. Microbes Daily Applications Part 5
    • -pathogens
    • -disease causing microbes
  7. Nomenclature System
    -established by linnaeus
  8. Types of Microorganisms
    • -bacteria
    • -archaea
    • -fungi
    • -viruses
    • -protozoa
    • -algae
    • -multi-cellular animal parasites
  9. Classification of Microorganisms (Proposed by who?)
    • Carl Woese (1978
    • -bacteria
    • -eukarya
    • -archaea
  10. Eukarya (Sub-classes)
    • -protist
    • -fungi
    • -animal
    • -plants
  11. Bacteria
    • -prokaryotes
    • -major shapes; bacillus, coccus, spiral
    • -peptidoglycan cell walls
    • -binary fission
    • -for energy bacteria use; organic or inorganic chemicals (chemiosynthesis or solar energy (photosynthesis)
    • - bacteria recycle carbon, nutrients, sulfur, and phosphorus that can be used by plants and animals
  12. Archaea
    • -prokaryotic
    • -lack peptidoglycan
    • -live in extreme enviorments
    • -methanogens (methane producers)
    • -extreme halophiles (salt lovers)
    • -extreme thermophiles (heat lovers)
  13. Fungi
    • -eukaryotic
    • -chitin cell walls
    • -use organic chemicals for energy
  14. Molds and Mushrooms (Fungi)
    • -are multicellular, consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae
    • -yeasts are uni-cellular
  15. Protozoa
    • -eukaryotic
    • -absorb or ingest organic chemicals
    • -may be motile via; pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
    • -may or may not be parasitic
    • -may reproduce sexually or asexually
  16. Algae
    • -eukaryotic
    • -cellulose cell walls
    • -use photosynthesis for energy
    • -sexual and asexual reproductive forms
    • -produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds
  17. Viruses
    • -acellular
    • -consist of DNA or RNA core
    • -core is surrounded by protein coat
    • -coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope
    • -replicate only when they are in a living host
  18. Multicellular Animal Parasites
    • -eukaryotic
    • -multi-cellular animals
    • -helminths (parasitic flatworms and roundworms)
    • -microscopic stages in life cycle
  19. Bacteriology
    study of bacteria
  20. Mycology
    study of fungi
  21. Parasitology
    study of protozoa and parasitic worms
  22. Immunology
    study of immunity
  23. Virology
    study of viruses
  24. Genomics
    the study of an organism’s genes
  25. Recombinant DNA
    DNA made from two different sources
  26. Microbial Genetics
    the study of how microbes inherit traits
  27. Molecular Biology
    the study of how DNA directs protein synthesis
  28. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    1901* von Behring Diphtheria antitoxin
  29. Microbial Ecology
    Study of relationship between microbes and the environment
  30. Bioremediation
    use of microbial metabolism to remove pollutants
  31. Bacteria (2)
    bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage
  32. Microbes as Biological Insecticides
    pathogenic microbes serve as alternatives to chemical pesticides in preventing insect damage to agricultural crops and disease transmission
  33. Biotechnology
    use of microbes to produce foods and chemicals
  34. Recombinant DNA Technology
    enables bacteria and fungi to produce a variety of proteins
  35. Gene Therapy
    missing or defective genes in human cells can be replaced
  36. Normal Microbiota (or “flora”)
    • -microbes normally present in and on the human body
    • -bacteria were once classified as plants, giving rise to use of the term  flora for microbes
    • -can prevent growth of pathogens
    • -can produce growth factors
  37. Resistance
    • -ability of body to ward off diseases
    • -factors; Physical (e.g. skin, nasal hairs) or chemical (e.g. tears, sweat) can be specific (e.g. immune system) or nonspecific (e.g. inflammatory response) can be artificial (e.g. antibiotics)
  38. Biofilms
    • -microbes attach to solid surfaces and grow into masses
    • -they will grow on rocks, pipes, teeth, and medical implants
  39. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
    -new diseases and diseases increasing in incidence
Card Set
Microbiology Test 1