Describe components of the blood.
- . Buffy coat
After centrifuging, of the listed blood components, which contains the components of immune function?
Buffy coat (white blood cells)
What percentage of our blood is plasma?
- Which of the formed elements is present in the greatest concentration?
- ERYTHROCYTES (45% OF WHOLE BLOOD)
Explain the functions of the blood?
THE FUNCTION OF TRANSPORT
- • Delivering O2 and
- nutrients to body cells
- • Transporting metabolic
- wastes to lungs and
- kidneys for elimination
- • Transporting hormones
- from endocrine organs to
- target organs
THE FUNCTION OF REGULATION
- • Maintaining body
- temperature by
- absorbing and
- distributing heat
- • Maintaining normal
- pH in body tissues.
- • Maintaining adequate
- fluid volume in
- circulatory system
THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTION
- Preventing blood
- – Plasma proteins and
- platelets initiate clot
- • Preventing infection
- – Antibodies
- – Complement
- – WBC
Which of the following is a protective function of blood
Describe the characteristics of erythrocytes
- Biconcave shape
- >97% hemoglobin
- Major factor
- contributing to blood
Which of the following is a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?
It has a biconcave disc shape
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTIONS OF ERYTHROCYTES?
- • RBCs dedicated to
- respiratory gas
- • Hemoglobin binds
- reversibly with
- • Normal values
- – Males - 13–18g/
- 100ml; Females - 12–
- 16 g/100ml
Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?
to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases?
What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?
reduced availability of oxygen
What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?
Each hemoglobin can transport
________ oxygen molecules.
Oxygen binds to the _______ portion of hemoglobin.
Describe the of the different types of leukocytes?
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEUKOCYTE
- neutrophil : Multilobed nucleus, pale red and blue
- cytoplasmic granules.
- EOSINOPHIL: Bilobed nucleus, red
- cytoplasmic granules.
- basophil:Bilobed nucleus, purplish-black cytoplasmic granules'.
- Lymphocyte:Large spherical nucleus, thin rim of
- pale blue cytoplasm.
- MONOCYTE: Kidney-shaped nucleus, abundant pale blue cytoplasm.
- NEUTROPHIL: the most numerous type of white blood cell.
- eosinophil: has a role in killing parasitic worms
- basophil: bilobed nucleus and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules.
- lymphocyte:small agranulocyte with a lifespan that ranges from a few hours to decades.
- Monocyte:U or kidney shaped in the nucleus.
Two categories of leukocytes
- Granulocytes – Visible cytoplasmic granules,
- lobed nuclei, phagocogytic
- – Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
- Agranulocytes – No visible cytoplasmic
- granules, spherical or kidney-shaped nulcei
- – Lymphocytes, monocytes
An elevated neutrophil count would
be indicative of ________.
an acute bacterial infection
Antihistamines counter the actions of which white blood cells?
DESCRIBE FUNCTIONS OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES
Defense against disease
- neutrophil: phagocytize bacteria
- eosinophil:kills parasitic worms
- basophil: release histamine and heparin when activated
- Lymphocyte: makes B & T cells
- Monocyte:develop into macorphage tissues
Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?
Identify the leukocytes in the figure in order.
neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte
Which granulated leukocyte is most likely to be active during a bacterial infection?
Understand how new blood is formed and where
how erythropoiesis is regulated
Describe the three steps of hemostasis
- Vascular spasm: Smooth muscle contracts,
- causing vasoconstriction.
- Platelet plug formation:Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers; platelets adhere.
- Coagulation: Fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets,
- forming the clot.
Which of the following shows the correct sequence of hemostasis from start to end?
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
A positive feed back of hemostatis which stage?
Plateltet plug formation
The immediate response to blood vessel damage is a ________.
Why don't platelets form plugs in undamaged vessels?
only contact of platelets with exposed collagen fibers and von Willebrand factor causes them to be sticky and form plugs.
Describe the ABO blood typing system and
AB is considered to be the universal recipient.
A person who lacks agglutinogen A but has agglutinogen B would have blood type:
how blood type is determined
by antigen A or B
An individual who is blood type AB negative can.
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen.
A person with type AB blood has
A and B antigens and neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies.
What determines a person's ABO blood type?
the antigens found on the RBCs
A person with A+ blood has _______.
- the A antigen on the surface of the red blood cells.
- Rh antigen on the surface of the red blood cells
- all of the above
would make antibodies to the A antigen but not the B antigen.
person with type B blood
would make antibodies to the B antigen but not the A antigen
person with type A blood
would have type A and B antigens
person with type AB blood
would make antibodies to the A and B antigens
Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood.
A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood
.A person with type O blood has _______.
neither A nor B agglutinogens
Understand why it’s important that donor and recipients be ‘matches’
A mismatch of blood types during a transfusion is dangerous because ________
preformed antibodies in the recipient's blood will bind and clump (agglutinate) the donated cells
Agglutinogens: an antigen that stimulates the production of an agglutinin.
Agranulocytes: lack granular cytoplasm and have round nuclei.
Anemia: – Blood has abnormally low O2-carrying capacity
Buffy coat:contains leukocytes and platelets.
Erythrocytes: intracellular protein that binds oxygen and transports it, most abdunant, 250 million volume
Formed elements:blood cells and cell fragments, white blood cells:leukocytes, defense cell
red blood cells:erythrocytes
-most abundant cell type
-specialized for transporting oxygen
platelets: cell fragments: clotting
Granulocytes:a white blood cell with secretory granules in its cytoplasm, e.g., an eosinophil or a basophil.
Hematocrit:s the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.
Hematopoiesis:is the process of creating new blood cells in the body.
Hemocytoblasts:the parent cell all formed elements arise from the same type of stem cell.
Hemoglobin:protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases
Hemostasis: stoppage of bleeding
lymphocytes:leukocyte is responsible for antibody production.
Plasma: 55% of whole blood, 90 water
Platelets: membrane-closed cytoplasmicn fragments: megakrocyte.
Universal donor: 0
Universal reciepent: type AB
A person with type B blood can only give blood to people of type AB and B blood.
incompatible transfusion:Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.