ESL Test

  1. ESL Entry Criteria
    • 1. When at least one answer of HLS is not English, OLPT given w/in 4 weeks; 
    • 2. Scores blow 40% on reading and English language arts;
    • 3. Parental permission w/in 10 days of committee recommendation
  2. Guided Reading
    Varies in amount/types of scaffolding used to help ESL Ss make sense of what they read. Scaffolding uses diagrams, drawings, discussions of similar experiences/stories, analogies, and hands-on activities to provide a better understanding of what they read.
  3. Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Members
    • Minimum: 
    • 1. campus administrator;
    • 2. certified teacher assigned to ESL; 
    • 3. a parent of a LEP student (may not be district employee)
    • All must receive training (translated if necessary). Translator available. 
  4. OLPT
    What is it?
    Why is it important?
    • 1. Oral Language Proficiency Test
    • 2. Test given when a student scores below 40% on reading and English language arts TEA-approved norm referenced measure. 
    • 3. It is important because it determines ESL placement.
  5. HLS
    Why is it important?
    • 1. Home Language Survey
    • 2. It is important because it determines whether or not a student is placed in an ESL program. 
    • 3. Students 9-12 authorized to sign HLS
  6. ESL Exit Criteria
    • 1. Parents notified w/in 10 days of exit; 
    • 2. Passes English criterion Reference Test when available (reading and writing); 
    • 3. OR at/above 40% on both English reading and Language Arts sections of Norm Referenced test
  7. BICS 
    What is it?
    How long?
    • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
    • 1. Social/conversational language
    • 2. Language for everyday situations
    • 3. ~2 years to reach monolingual context-embedded proficiency (a handshake can easily be related to words of welcome)
  8. LPAC Training
    • 1. Required of all LPAC committee members
    • 2. Must be developed in parent member's primary language if s/he does not understand English
    • 3. Translator should be available.
  9. Parental Rights and Responsibilities for Placement
    • 1. Must be notified w/in days of LPAC recommendation 
    • 2. Must approve their child's placement in ESL program
    • 3. Must be provided program information and its benefits.
  10. L1 and L2 Relationship
    • 1. Skills developed in L1 transfer to L2
    • 2. L2 skills are the base to succeed academically in target language (L2)
    • 3. In deep structures, languages are interdependent
  11. Context Embedded Vs. Context Reduced
    Embedded - learner can figure out what is being communicated from the contest or situation. Reduced - learner must understand what is going on based purely on what is either written or spoken. They don't receive any clues from the environment.
  12. CALP
    What is it? 
    How long?
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    • 1. Language for cognitive/academic learning
    • 2. ~5-7 years to reach same level of proficiency in context-reduced language (concept cannot be understood based on environment, must be learned)
  13. Audio-Lingual Method
    • 1. Dialogue with grammar, vocab. in lesson
    • 2. Ss mimic, memorize dialogue; pattern drills reinforce grammatical structure of dialogue. (repetition, translation, etc.)
    • 3. No comparison to newer comprehensible input, low-filter environments
  14. Direct Method
    • 1. Examples of language to inductively teach grammar - all discussion in target language
    • 2. Questions about relevant topics, using grammatical structure in conversation
    • 3. Accuracy sought, errors corrected. 
    • 4. Better than others - too much grammar
  15. Grammar Translation
    • 1. Grammatical rule, example sentences, bilingual vocabulary list, reading section exemplifying rules, practice using them
    • 2. Taught in Ss first language
    • 3. Provides little opportunity for acquisition, relies heavily on learning
  16. Suggestopedia
    • 1. Small, intensive class; focus on low-stress attractive environment
    • 2. L1 used at beginning, but most in L2
    • 3. Teacher role-create right atmosphere, acting out dialogues of core content
    • 4. Provides optimal input, less grammar
  17. Silent Way
    • 1. Also known as Total Physical Response 
    • 2. Ss listen, respond to commands (walk, sit)
    • 3. Ss speech delayed; when willing to talk, give commands to other Ss
    • 4. Substantial L2 acquisiiton predicted 
    • 5. Better than audio-ling and grammar-trans
  18. Cognitive Approach
    • 1. Focuses on developing all 4 skills (language, listening, reading, writing)
    • 2. Focuses on communicative competence 
    • 3. Learning overemphasized
    • 4. Better than Grammar-trans, but newer methods provide better results
  19. Morpheme
    What is it? 
    Why is it important?
    • 1. The smallest unit of meaning
    • 2. Languages are dynamic and differ in this way

    uncommon   singing
  20. Phoneme
    What is it? 
    Why is it important?
    • 1. The smallest unit of sound
    • 2. Languages are dynamic and differ in this way

     /p/ put     /c/  cat
  21. Natural Approach
    • 1. Teacher speaks only L2
    • 2. Ss may use L1 or L2, speech errors not corrected; grammar homework corrected
    • 3. Emphasis use of language to talk about ideas, perform tasks, solve problems
    • 4. Great but limited interest, relevance
  22. Acquisition v. Learning
    • Acquisition - subconscious, similar to way children acquire native language, internalize grammatical structures in predictable natural order. Errors = developmental process  vs. 
    • Learning - explicit set of rules/grammar-classroom instruction
  23. Nativism
    • Language Acquisition Device Theory
    • Language is innately determined from within rather than by external factors 1. ability to distinguish language from other sounds 2. ability to organize linguistic events into various classes later defined
  24. Functions of Language
    • 1. Instrumental - personal needs
    • 2. Regulatory - control behavior of others
    • 3. Personal - tell about themselves
    • 4. Interactional - get along with others
    • 5. Heuristic - learn about things
    • 6. Imaginative - make believe
    • 7. Informative - communicate information to others
  25. Affective Filter
    • 1. Elements that affect acquisition of language; anxiety, self-image, interest & motivation
    • 2. Provide low-level stress, interesting environment, avoid correcting and embarrassing Ss
  26. Monitor Hypothesis
    3 points
    1. Grammatical structures are acquired in natural order, 2. Conscious knowledge comes late as editor of linguistic output, 3. To work, speaker must be concerned with correctness, know rules, have sufficient time to apply rules
  27. 2nd Language Hypothesis
    There are 2 separate processes for the development of proficiency in L2: Acquisition and Learning
  28. Shared Reading
    Read Aloud
    Cloze Reading
    • 1. Ss read with partners or small groups
    • 2. Teacher reads interesting books aloud to class - models language usage
    • 3. A method that leaves blanks in a sentence or passage to be filled in by Ss. Can be presented orally or written.
  29. Total Physical Response 
    Cognitive Academic Language
    Learning Approach
    1. Involve listening/responding to commands given by teacher, 2. Ss speech is delayed, wait for Ss willingness to speak, 3. Theory predicts that TPR (Total Physical Response) should result in substantial language acquisition
  30. Input Hypothesis
    • 1. ESL Ss acquire language by comprehending what is being communicated
    • 2. Comprehensible input must be provided by teachers
  31. SIOP Model
    Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
    developed to facilitate quality instruction for ELLs in content area teaching
  32. 8 components of SIOP Model
    • 1. Preparation: Define content, language, age appropriate concepts
    • 2. Building Background: link past learning and new concepts and students background experience
    • 3. Comprehensible input: speak appropriately, model, visuals, etc. 
    • 4. Strategies: GIST, SQ3R, Reciprocal teaching, etc. 
    • 5. Interaction: wait time, various group strategies, clarification via bilingual paraprofessionals, native language texts, etc. 
    • 6. Practice/Application: Hands on materials, activities, integrate all language skills
    • 7. Lesson Delivery: appropriate pace, clearly support content and language objectives engage students 90-100% of the lesson (less teacher talk)
    • 8. Review Assessment: Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and concepts, regular feedback on their output, various assessments
  33. SQ3R
    • Survey: look over a chapter or work to gain an overall impression
    • Question: Students should pose questions that they want to read and answer
    • Read: Students should read the chapter or section and try to answer their previous questions
    • Recite: If this was done in sections, students recite or report the important information
    • Review - Once the entire work in complete students review the important concepts, events, generalizations and facts.
  34. GIST
    • Generating Interactions Between Schemata and Text
    • A strategy that can be used to improve the students ability to identify the gist or main ideas of a paragraph
    • Steps in Summary
    • 1. Choose an appropriate paragraph
    • 2. Students read the first sentence
    • 3. Have the students retell the sentence in their own words. Their retelling needs to be fewer than 15 words long. (Write the 1st sentence with blank lines so that the students can write their retelling.) This sis first modeled on a projector or white board
    • 4. Repeat this procedure for the entire paragraph
    • 5. Move beyond sentence by sentence summarization and have the students summarize on their own. (Sentence by sentence - paragraph - passage - section - chapter)
Card Set
ESL Test
TeXes ESL Supplemental test prep