Quality Knowledge Area

  1. 80/20 rule
    is one that Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto popularized by his 1906 observation that 80 percent of the land in Italy was owned by 20 percent of the population at the time. It came to be known as the ?Law of the Vital Few and Trivial Many,? a term coined by Dr. Joseph Juran when he realized that Pareto?s principle had far-reaching implications
  2. accuracy
    pertains to correctness of a value that is measured and considered to be close to a true value
  3. affinity diagrams
    provide for illustrating ideas that are sorted into groups and analyzed accordingly
  4. appraisal costs
    are also known as inspection costs and are typically incurred to identify defects before a projects? product is productionalized
  5. attribute sampling
    is a statistical method used to test effectiveness of controls and determine the rate of conformance to project specifications
  6. boundaries
    determine the start and end point of processes in addition to inputs and outputs
  7. brainstorming
    is an information-gathering technique that is a tool and technique of the Identify Risks process. It involves assembling in one place subject matter experts, team members, risk management team members, and anyone else who might benefit from the process and querying them on possible risk events
  8. change requests
    are part of the formal written process of making a minor or major change to project areas. Without these documents, a change cannot be implemented to any part of the project
  9. collaborative workshop data collection method
    involves participation from all stakeholders. With collaborative workshops, stakeholders not only provide data, but also help develop recommendations and conclusions
  10. Control Charts
    are used to determine the stability of a process or predictable levels of performance. Control charts apply limits to specifications based upon requirements. They are also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts
  11. Control Quality
    is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend changes to the project as needed
  12. corrective action
    is a documented process to help drive project activities back into alignment with the project's critical path and project management plan
  13. Cost
    Benefit Analysis- delivers details associated with quality activities and comparing the cost of quality to the components expected benefit
  14. cost management plan
    is an input to all other cost management processes because it commonly consists of the plans, guidance, and descriptions on how to best approach or perform the other cost management processes. Contents include: Units of measure, Levels of precision, Levels of accuracy, Organizational procedures and their locations. And a few of particular importance to the next process that we are going to discuss are: Control thresholds, Rules of performance measurement, and Reporting formats
  15. cost of failures
    is known as the cost of poor quality
  16. Cost of Quality
    incorporates all costs incurred over the life of the product to prevent nonconformance to the project?s requirements
  17. Costs Incurred
    is the earned value of project activities aligned to budget and project milestones
  18. data flow diagram (DFD)
    is a graphical illustration of the "flow" of data through a system that models the processes within the system
  19. Design of Experiments (DOE)
    is a statistical measure for identifying factors that can influence variables of a product or process being developed. It should be used within the Plan Quality process to determine the number and types of tests and their impact on the cost of quality
  20. Direct and Manage Project Work
    is part of the Executing Process Group. It provides guidance that fulfills the requirements set forth by the sponsor. This process can be conducted by the project manager alone, may be delegated by the project manager or it may be a team effort
  21. Entity Relationship Diagrams (ER model)
    is used to describe database activities. It typically illustrates a relational database where data is presented in tables. It is also spelt Entity-Relationship Diagrams
  22. external failure costs
    include warranty activities, recalls, replacements, and the potential for liability in regard to issues that develop through the use of defective products. In addition to replacement costs and rework, legal fees and the company?s brand reputation can be directly impacted by poor quality
  23. fishbone diagram
    is named for its shape, which illustrates activities in a fishbone format-as if you were to look at a side view of the skeleton of a fish. It helps determine the root cause of problems.
  24. flowchart
    is diagram that represents a process. It illustrates steps as boxes that indicate the activity the step is intended to deliver
  25. Flowcharting
    provides a graphical representation of processes illustrating showing relationships between process steps
  26. focus groups
    bring together stakeholders that have been identified as subject matter experts. They are moderated and designed for a group consensus, as opposed to one-on-one activities, such as interviews. Focus groups are good for acquiring data relevant to cross-functional processes that can be driven with a degree of impartiality.
  27. force field analysis
    serves to identify, by use of diagrams, the forces in place that are both for and against change relative to a project
  28. grade
    is considered to be a category assigned for products and services that have the same functional use but can have different characteristics
  29. histograms
    are simple bar charts that illustrate groups of data. They are used to illustrate differentiating frequencies within a process that can identify trends for analysis and recommendations for process improvements
  30. inspection
    is the deliverables-review process that allows for verification. It is also referred to as reviews, product reviews, audits, or walkthroughs
  31. internal failure costs
    result from defects being identified prior to delivery to the client or customer. In scope for internal failure costs are rejected products, remnants, rework defective units, and scrap, all of which generate additional downtime and costs for remanufacturing
  32. International Organization for Standardization
    oversee accreditation and certification of companies that comply with their process standards
  33. issues
    within projects are the products of escalated risks
  34. Kepner Tregoe Matrix
    is a root cause analysis decision-making method. It is a step-by-step approach used to address an issue and analyze potential risks by applying critical thinking to organize and prioritize information that can then be evaluated
  35. mean
    is average value
  36. median
    is the midpoint between the lowest and highest value of a data set
  37. mode
    is the most frequently occurring value
  38. Nominal Group Technique
    encourages participants to have equal say in participation, ideas are collected by a facilitator in an individual manner (say ideas submitted to an ?idea box? or collecting post-it notes, then the group discuses and ranks or votes on each idea
  39. organizational process assets
    are an accumulation of tools, processes, and techniques that are retained by the business in order to standardize processes and practices
  40. Pareto Charts
    incorporate the 80/20 rule that states 80 percent of problems come from 20 percent of the known causes. Pareto analysis also adds weights to the most frequently occurring activities
  41. Perform Integrated Change Control
    is the process of formally reviewing all change requests and managing approved changes into the project plan for development
  42. Perform Quality Assurance
    is the process of auditing quality requirements and the results obtained from quality control measurements that ensure standards and definitions are utilized
  43. Plan Quality Management
    is the process of identifying quality requirements or standards for the project and product while providing documentation in regard to how the project will comply with quality standards
  44. precision
    pertains to consistency that the value of repeated measurements remains the same or close to the same
  45. prevention
    works to keep errors out of the processes used to develop a product
  46. Process Configurations
    are illustrations of project processes. These configurations provide visualization of the process that helps the team analyze process areas for enhancements or improvements
  47. process groups
    are units used to logically collect project processes
  48. Process Improvement Plan
    details required steps that are used to analyze processes specifically aimed at improvement opportunities. Thresholds, boundaries, configuration, and metrics are all in scope for improvement opportunities
  49. process quality
    relates to the project management processes aligned to deliver the product of the project
  50. product quality
    refers to the quality inherent to all activities and/or deliverables that create the product of the project
  51. Progress Reporting
    aligns deliverable status to predetermined milestones developed in conjunction with the project baseline
  52. project management plan
    is the document detailing all aspects of a project including baselines that are referenced throughout the project?s lifecycle to keep the project on track
  53. project metrics
    can be used to optimize development activities and assess quality deliverables at the activity level
  54. Project Quality Management
    incorporates risk activities to ensure that quality assurance and quality planning are delivering the level of quality expected. Qualitative and quantitative analysis helps identify risk and determine whether corrective or preventive measures are necessary
  55. project scope baseline
    incorporates project assumptions into the scope of a project. It contributes to the development of the project Work Breakdown Structure which, in turn, can serve as an analytical tool to help determine risk at the summary, control account, and work package levels
  56. quality
    correlates to the degree to which characteristics of a project meet requirements
  57. quality audits
    are structured, independent reviews that help the project team align activities to meet client expectations, organizational policies and standards, regulatory requirements- if applicable and processes or procedures detailed within organizational process assets
  58. quality conformance
    is a target toward which project managers should drive project-related activities. Conformance indicates that the product of a project meets or exceeds design specifications and is free of defects that could impact the performance of the product
  59. Quality Control Measurements
    provide details pertaining to the findings or results of performance metrics that were specified during quality planning activities. They are the tools, or analytical measurements, used to access quality based upon analytical details or data
  60. Quality Control Measures
    are the results of quality control activities and required changes within the project to address quality risks and issues found
  61. quality cost
    correlates to project related costs incurred to prevent defects or those costs that may result due to defects
  62. Quality Management Plan
    will be used to help determine the risks associated with integrating quality within work packages, or at the activity level. First section client identifies Completeness and Correction Criteria, part 2 is Quality Assurance to create the deliverables, third, Quality Control to record and track activities.
  63. quality plan
    helps define requirements for quality and the approach that will be taken to achieve them. It is typically applied to ensure adherence throughout the life of the project
  64. range
    is the span of values over which your data set occurs
  65. risk register
    helps the project team determine and allocate costs against risks identified while reviewing activities within the work breakdown structure
  66. risks
    refer to the potential external events that will negatively impact a project?s progress
  67. Root cause analysis (RCA)
    is another information-gathering technique that permits the project team to identify multiple causes that correlate to risk and, through analysis, arrive at the single root cause
  68. Run Charts
    plot data based on time to identify trends and cycles
  69. Scatter Diagrams
    are two-dimensional plots used to show the relationship between independent and dependent variable. They are used to determine direct or indirect relationships that can then be used to analyze process performance
  70. Schedule Management Plan
    is used to identify risks associated with project development, especially predecessors and successors, and how risk can impact their ability to meet a project?s critical path
  71. Seven Basic Tools of Quality
    is a set of graphical tools and techniques that address quality issues in manufacturing. As compared to operations research activities, these tools are considered to be basic because they require minimal formal training in statistics and can be used to solve the majority of quality-related issues
  72. SIPOC
    is a tool used to identify and categorize the parts of a process as relating to either the suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, or customers
  73. stakeholder analysis
    is a technique used in the Identify Stakeholder process that is used to gather and analyze information to determine who interests should be taken into account
  74. stakeholder register
    is a communication tool that a project manager can customize. Helps provide the answers up front in regard to engaging and coordinating efforts amongst stakeholders
  75. standard deviation from the mean
    refers to how much each measurement deviates from the mean
  76. Statistical Sampling
    provides the ability to choose part of the population in scope for inspection whereby sample frequencies and sizes are determined during the Plan Quality process
  77. swim lane diagram
    visualizes process flows in a manner that distinguishes responsibilities for sub-processes. They may be arranged either horizontally or vertically
  78. thresholds
    help determine the upper and lower limits of a process
  79. Use Case Diagrams
    are used to describe the visible interactions that the system will have with users and external systems. They can describe how a user would perform their role when using the system, which would assist in product development
  80. variable sampling
    was developed to continuously measure quantities for quality control
Card Set
Quality Knowledge Area
LearnSmart PMP Course glossary items Quality Knowledge Area