CRIM 355

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  1. What are the common types of evidence?
    • 1. Blood, semen, and saliva: Liquid or dried, onto fabrics or others objects. These substances are subject to serological and biochemical analysis.
    • 2. Documents: Written/typewritten, authenticity so source can be determines .
    • 3. Drugs: substances seized
    • 4. Explosives: devices containing an explosive charge, residues of an explosive
    • 5. Fibers: Any natural or synthetic fiber
    • 6. Fingerprints: latent or visible 
    • 7. Firearms and ammunition: Discharged or intact ammunition
    • 8. Glass: Glass particle or fragment, also includes windowpanes containing holes made my a bullet or other projectile 
    • 9. Hair: Animal or human
    • 10. Impressions: Tire markings, shoe prints, depressions in soft soils, all others forms of tracks
    • 11. Organs and physiological fluid: Submitted for toxicology to detect possible existence of drugs or poisons, includes blood
    • 12. Paint5: liquid or dried, car paint in auto accidents
    • 13. Petroleum products:gasoline residues removed from the scene of an arson, or grease and oil stains whose presence may suggest involvement in a crime
    • 14. Plastic Bags: Garbage bag may be evidential, can be associated with a similar bag in possession of a suspect
    • 15. Plastic, rubbers, and other polymers: linked to objects of a suspect
    • 16. Powder residues: Any item suspected of containing firearm discharge residues
    • 17. Serial numbers: all stolen property, the restoration of erased identification numbers
    • 18. Soil and minerals: items containing soil or mineral to confirm a suspect to a particular location, could be embedded in shoes or insulation found on garments
    • 19. Tool marks: Any objects that is suspected of containing the impression of another object.
    • 20. Vehicle lights: Examination of to see if the light was either on or off at time of impact
    • 21. Wood and other vegetative matter: Wood, sawdust, shavings, or vegetative matter on clothing, shoes, or tools
  2. Identification
    Process of determining a substance's physical or chemical identity. Drug analysis, species determination, and explosive residue analysis are typical examples of this undertaking in a forensic setting.
  3. Comparison
    Process of ascertaining whether two or more objects have a common origin
  4. Individual characteristics
    Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty
  5. Class Charactersistics
    Properties of evidence that can be associated only with a group and never with a single source
  6. Product rule
    Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring genetic markers to obtain an overall frequency of occurrence for a genetic profile
  7. IAFIS
    • Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
    • Maintained by the FBI, became operational in '99
  8. CODIS
    • Combined DNA Index System
    • Enable federal, state, and local crime laboratories to electronically exchange and compare DNA profiles, thereby linking crimes to each other and to convicted offenders
  9. NIBIN
    • National Integrated Ballistics Information Network
    • Maintained by the bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.
    • The heart of the NIBIN is  the IBIS it comprises of a microscope and a computer unit that can capture an image of a bullet or cartridge case
  10. PDQ
    • International Forensic Automotive Paint Date Query 
    • Database contains chemical and color information pertaining to original automotive paints
    • Deeveloped and maintained by the Forensic Laboratory Services of the RCMP
  11. Rapid DNA
    A process of developing DNA profiles from a buccal; swab in 90 minutes or less that are compatible with a CODIS search
  12. SICAR
    Shoeprint Image Capture and Retrieval 

    Additional similar database is TreadMare
Card Set
CRIM 355
Chapter 3
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