Chapter 3 - The Skeletal System

  1. functions of the skeleton system
    • 1. Bones act as the framework of the body
    • 2. Bones support and protect the internal organs.
    • 3. Joints work in conjunction with muscles, ligaments, and tendons, making possible the wide variety of body movements.
    • 4. Calcium, which is required for normal nerve and muscle function, is stored in bones.
    • 5. Red bone marrow, which has important function in the formation of blood cells, is located within spongy bone.
  2. periosteum
    the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
  3. compact bone
    aka cortical bone, the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
  4. spongy bone
    aka cancellous bone, lighter and no as strong as compact bone

    commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones such as femur & red bone marrow
  5. medullary cavity
    the central cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it is surrounded by compact bone

    red and yellow bone marrow are stored
  6. endosteum
    the tissue that lines the medullary cavity
  7. red bone marrow
    located within the spongy bone

    a hempoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrmbocytes
  8. hemopoietic
    formation of blood cells
  9. yellow bone marrow
    functions as a fat storage area

    composed chiefly of fat cells and located in the medullary cavity of long bones
  10. cartilage
    smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones

    more elastic than bone, also makeup the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose
  11. articular cartilage
    covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints.

    makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other
  12. meniscus
    the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw
  13. diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  14. epiphyses
    the wider ends of long bones such as the femur of the legs

    each epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage to protect it

    proximal is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body

    distal is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midline of the body
  15. foramen
    an opening in a bone through which blood vessles, nerves, ligaments pass

    ex: spinal cord passes through the foramen magnum of the occipital bone at the base of the skull
  16. process
    a normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon

    ex: mastoid process is the bony projection located on temporal bones just behind the ears
  17. joints
    aka articulations, the place of union between two or more bones

    classified according to their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow
  18. fibrous joints
    aka sutures, consiist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together
  19. fontanelles
    aka soft spots, are normally present on the skull of a newborn

    • facilitates the passage of the infant through the birth canal
    • allow for the growth of the skull during the 1st ¬†year
  20. cartilaginous joints
    allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

    ex: where the ribs connect to the sternum (breast bone), these joints allow movement during breathing

    pubic symphysis allows some movement to facilitate childbirth, located between the pubic bones in the anterior (front) of the pelvis
  21. synovial joint
    created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions

    ball-and-socket joints, such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions

    hinge joints, such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane
  22. synovial capsule
    the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
  23. synovial membrane
    lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  24. synovial fluid
    flows within the synovial caovity, act as as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
  25. ligaments
    bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage
  26. bursa
    fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction, such as the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone
  27. axial skeleton (80)
    protects the major organs of the nervous (spinal cord), respiratory (lung), and circulatory systems (heart)
  28. appendicular skeleton (126)
    makes body movement possible and protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and production
  29. skull
    consists of 8 bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and 6 bones in the middle ear.
  30. frontal bone
    the anterior portion of the cranium that forms the forehead

    houses the frontal sinuses and forms the roof of the ethmoid sinuses, the nose and part of the socket that protects the eyeball
  31. parietal bone
    two of the largest bones of the skull and form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
  32. occipital bone
    forms the back part of the skull and the base of the cranium
  33. temporal bones
    form the sides and base of the cranium
  34. external auditory meatus
    the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear

    located within the temporal bone on each side of the skull
  35. auditory ossicles
    3 tiny bones: malleus, incus, and stapes
  36. zygomatic bones
    aka cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone that makes up the forehead
  37. maxillary bones
    form most of the upper jaw
  38. palatine bones
    form the anterior (front) part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose
  39. lacrimal bones
    make up part of the orbit (socket of the eye) at the inner angle
  40. inferior conchae
    thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
  41. vomer bone
    forms the base for the nasal septum
  42. mandible
    aka jawbone, the only movable bone of the skull

    attached to the skull at the temporao-mandibular joint
  43. cervical vertebrae (7)
    first set of 7 vertebrae and form the neck
  44. thoracic vertebrae (12)
    second set of 12 vertebrae
  45. lumbar vertebrae (5)
    make up the third set of 5 vertebrae
Card Set
Chapter 3 - The Skeletal System
Medical Terminology, LVN