GI1- Equine Dentistry

  1. Describe the GI fermentation of horses vs ruminants.
    horses- hindgut; ruminants- foregut
  2. What kind of teeth do grazing animals have?
    hypsodont teeth- in constant wear due to eating abrasive grass
  3. Describe hypsodont teeth.
    high crown with rough, flat occlusal surface for crushing and grinding, cementum above and below gingiva, enamel is on entire length of tooth, continual eruption
  4. Describe brachydont teeth.
    low crown, neck below gingiva, crown above gingiva, enamel only down to neck, cementum only below gingiva, pointy occlusal surface, fully erupts prior to maturity
  5. What is the eruption rate of a hypsodont tooth? Rate of wear?
    2-3mm/year; rate of wear should be the same if healthy and on roughage diet
  6. Describe the Triadan system for naming teeth.
    the first digit is quadrant (1= upper right, then move clockwise), second and third digit are tooth position (01= first incisor, 04= canine, so on) [baby teeth are numbered 5-800]
  7. Describe the the differences for naming teeth in horses.
    wolf tooth is FIRST PREMOLAR- 105, 205, 305, 405
  8. What is the occlusal surface?
    the chewing surface
  9. What does mesial mean?
    toward the midline
  10. What is the equine dental formula?
    • deciduous 2 (Di 3/3, Dc 0/0, Dpm 3/3)
    • permanent 2 (I 3/3, C 1/1 or 0/0, PM 3/3 or 4/4, M 3/3)
  11. What is the rule of 6's?
    2 incisors at 6 days, 4 incisors at 6 weeks, 6 incisors at 6 months
  12. What is the last tooth to erupt?
  13. What are the incisors eruption dates?
    • 1st incisors- 2.5 years
    • 2nd incisors- 3.5 years
    • 3rd incisors- 4.5 years
    • "in wear" after 6 months
  14. What is unique about the equine canine tooth?
    the only brachydont tooth in the horse's mouth- fighting teeth usually only present in males
  15. What are wolf teeth?
    first premolar (105 and 205- rarely present on mandible)
  16. What do you think in a 1-4 year old horse with bumps on the ventral surface of the mandible?
    eruption bumps- normal when teeth are erupting
  17. When is it acceptable to pull a cap tooth?
    adult tooth is visible beneath cap, cap is mobile, horse is appropriate age, causing dicomfort
  18. What are pulp horns?
    stained secondary dentin that covers the pulp
  19. What are the alternating layers of 3 dental tissues?
    enamel, dentin, cementum

    [peripheral cementum, peripheral enamel, peripheral dentin, secondary dentin, infundibular enamel, infundibular cementum]
  20. Which teeth have an infundibulum?
    maxillary cheek teeth
  21. What is cementum?
    supporting tissue that is part of the periodontum
  22. What components make up the periodontum? (4)
    gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone
  23. What is enamel?
    hardest, brittle tissue of the teeth for support and impact absorption
  24. What is dentin?
    living tissue that supports enamel and protects pulp
  25. What should you NOT do when floating teeth?
    do NOT grind off enamel ridges, cheek teeth should have a rough surface for grinding
  26. What are points?
    cheek teeth enamel overgrowths on buccal aspect of maxillary teeth and lingual aspect of mandibular teeth
  27. What are hooks?
    excess crown that is longer than it is wide- most common on 106 and 206
  28. What are ramps?
    excess tooth wider than it is tall (more sloping than a hook)- most commonly on 311 and 411
  29. What is a step?
    one tooth with excess crown because the opposing tooth is missing
  30. What is a wave?
    mor than one tooth in a row with excess crown, corresponding opposing teeth with excessively worm crowns
  31. Describe excessive transverse ridge.
    transverse ridge >3mm in height- young horses tend to have prominent ridges- don't grind down
  32. What is a diastema?
    a space b/w the teeth- may be physiologic (such as b/w incisors and premolars) or pathologic
  33. Why should a DVM be the one providing dentistry?
    accredited education, licensed, insured for liability
  34. Clinical signs most commonly dental related. (5)
    unilateral nasal d/c, focal swelling of mandible or rostral maxilla, ptyalism (hypersalivation), quidding (balled up feed falling out of mouth), halitosis
  35. What causes quidding?
    some painful process in the mouth
  36. How often should preventative dental exams be performed?
    yearly after 2-3 years of age (also, birth, 6 month vaccines, 16-24 months monitor for erupting teeth)
  37. Facial swelling is usually an indication of infection in the ____________; with teeth caudally to this, the clinical sign you will see instead is ___________.
    first 3 cheek teeth; nasal d/c (because they communicate with the sinus; first 3 cheek teeth so not communicate with sinus)
  38. Why do horses get points?
    because the maxilla is slightly wider than the mandible
  39. Shear mouth occurs because...
    one side of the mouth is painful and so the horse is not chewing on that side [increased angle to the arcade]
  40. What teeth are the only teeth in horses that should normally have tartar?
    lower canines
  41. What is the most commonly used sedative for dentistry?
  42. What sedative is used for only a short exam?
  43. What sedative is used for geriatric or debilitated horses because it causes less ataxia and less profound head drop?
  44. What are 2 adjunct sedatives?
    Butorphanol, Ace
  45. What is the risk associated with wedge speculums?
    creates a large amount of force on 1-2 teeth and may cause fractures
  46. Changing the shape of the tooth.
  47. What amount of tooth is safe to remove without damaging the pulp?
  48. Wha tis the maximum amount of time you can spend on one tooth with floating?
    not greater than 30 seconds
  49. Common reasons for extraction. (7)
    apical infection, mobile tooth, crown fracture, supernumerary tooth, retained deciduous tooth, wolf teeth, EOTRH
  50. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH) affects the __(2)__; it occurs in horses ________ years old.
    incisors and canines; 20+
  51. What is the only known effective treatment for EOTRH?
    extraction of affected teeth
  52. What are clinical signs of EOTRH? (9)
    pain, excess cementum, tooth resorption, weight loss, gingival recession, loose teeth, periodontal pocketing, draining tracts, apprehend feed differently
  53. What are the 2 types of surgical extraction?
    repulsion technique (flap sinus open, push tooth out from above), horizontal or vertical buccotomy
Card Set
GI1- Equine Dentistry
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