A woman’s obstetric history indicates that she is pregnant for the fourth time, and all her children from previous pregnancies are living. One was born at 39 weeks of gestation, twins were born at 34 weeks of gestation, and another child was born at 35 weeks of gestation. What is her gravidity and parity using the GTPAL system?
A woman at 10 weeks of gestation who is seen in the prenatal clinic with presumptive signs and symptoms of pregnancy likely has:
b.Positive pregnancy test
A woman is at 14 weeks of gestation. The nurse expects to palpate the fundus at which level?
a.Not palpable above the symphysis at this time
b.Slightly above the symphysis pubis
c.At the level of the umbilicus
d.Slightly above the umbilicus
Slightly above the symphysis pubis
The musculoskeletal system adapts to the changes that occur during pregnancy. A woman can expect to experience what change?
a.Her center of gravity will shift backward.
b.She will have increased lordosis.
c.She will have increased abdominal muscle tone.
d.She will notice decreased mobility of her pelvic joints.
She will have increased lordosis.
A 31-year-old woman believes that she may be pregnant. She took an over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy test 1 week ago after missing her period; the test was positive. During her assessment interview, the nurse inquires about the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP) and asks whether she is taking any medications. The woman states that she takes medicine for epilepsy. She has been under considerable stress lately at work and has not been sleeping well. She also has a history of irregular periods. Her physical examination does not indicate that she is pregnant. She has an ultrasound scan, which reveals that she is not pregnant. What is the most likely cause of the false-positive pregnancy test result?
a.She took the pregnancy test too early.
b.She takes anticonvulsants.
c.She has a fibroid tumor.
d.She has been under considerable stress and has a hormone imbalance.
She takes anticonvulsants.
A woman is in her seventh month of pregnancy. She has been complaining of nasal congestion and occasional epistaxis. The nurse suspects that:
a.This is a normal respiratory change in pregnancy caused by elevated levels of estrogen
b.This is an abnormal cardiovascular change and the nosebleeds are an ominous sign
c.The woman is a victim of domestic violence and is being hit in the face by her partner
d.The woman has been using cocaine intranasally
This is a normal respiratory change in pregnancy caused by elevated levels of estrogen
In order to reassure and educate pregnant clients about changes in their breasts, nurses should be aware that:
a.The visibility of blood vessels that form an intertwining blue network indicates full function of Montgomery’s tubercles and possibly infection of the tubercles
b.The mammary glands do not develop until 2 weeks before labor
c.Lactation is inhibited until the estrogen level declines after birth
d.Colostrum is the yellowish oily substance used to lubricate the nipples for breastfeeding
Lactation is inhibited until the estrogen level declines after birth
A nurse caring for a pregnant client must understand that the hormone essential for maintaining pregnancy is:
b.Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
A nurse providing care to a pregnant woman should know that all are normal gastrointestinal changes in pregnancy except:
Appendicitis may be difficult to diagnose in pregnancy because the appendix is:
a.Displaced upward and laterally, high and to the right
b.Displaced upward and laterally, high and to the left
c.Deep at McBurney’s point
d.Displaced downward and laterally, low and to the right
Displaced upward and laterally, high and to the right
In order to reassure and educate pregnant clients about changes in their cardiovascular system, maternity nurses should be aware that:
a.A pregnant woman experiencing disturbed cardiac rhythm, such as sinus arrhythmia, requires close medical and obstetric observation no matter how healthy she otherwise may appear
b.Changes in heart size and position and increases in blood volume create auditory changes from 20 weeks to term
c.Palpitations are twice as likely to occur in twin gestations
d.All of the above changes likely will occur
Changes in heart size and position and increases in blood volume create auditory changes from 20 weeks to term
Probable signs of pregnancy are:
a.Determined by ultrasound
b.Observed by the health care provider
c.Reported by the client
Observed by the health care provider
Which time-based description of a stage of development in pregnancy is accurate?a.Viability—22 to 37 weeks since the last menstrual period (assuming a fetal weight greater than 500 g)
b.Term—pregnancy from the beginning of week 38 of gestation to the end of week 42
c.Preterm—pregnancy from 20 to 28 weeks
d.Postdate—pregnancy that extends beyond 38 weeks
Term—pregnancy from the beginning of week 38 of gestation to the end of week 42
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important biochemical marker for pregnancy and therefore the basis for many tests. A maternity nurse should be aware that:
a.hCG can be detected as early as 2½ weeks after conception
b.The hCG level increases gradually and uniformly throughout pregnancy
c.Much lower than normal increases in the level of hCG may indicate a postdate pregnancy
d.A higher than normal level of hCG may indicate an ectopic pregnancy or Down syndrome
A higher than normal level of hCG may indicate an ectopic pregnancy or Down syndrome
In order to reassure and educate pregnant clients about changes in the uterus, nurses should be aware that:
a.Lightening occurs near the end of the second trimester as the uterus rises into a different position
b.The woman’s increased urinary frequency in the first trimester is the result of exaggerated uterine antireflexion caused by softening
c.Braxton Hicks contractions become more painful in the third trimester, particularly if the woman tries to exercise
d.The uterine souffle is the movement of the fetus
The woman’s increased urinary frequency in the first trimester is the result of exaggerated uterine antireflexion caused by softening
The mucous plug that forms in the endocervical canal is called the
Some pregnant clients may complain of changes in their voice and impaired hearing. The nurse can tell these clients that these are common reactions to:
a.A decreased estrogen level
b.Displacement of the diaphragm, resulting in thoracic breathing
c.Congestion and swelling, which occur because the upper respiratory tract has become more vascular
d.Increased blood volume
Congestion and swelling, which occur because the upper respiratory tract has become more vascular
In order to reassure and educate pregnant clients about the functioning of their kidneys in eliminating waste products, maternity nurses should be aware that:
a.Increased urinary output makes pregnant women less susceptible to urinary infection
b.Increased bladder sensitivity and then compression of the bladder by the enlarging uterus result in the urge to urinate even if the bladder is almost empty
c.Renal (kidney) function is more efficient when the woman assumes a supine position
d.Using diuretics during pregnancy can help keep kidney function regular
Increased bladder sensitivity and then compression of the bladder by the enlarging uterus result in the urge to urinate even if the bladder is almost empty
A pregnant woman tells her nurse that she is worried about the blotchy, brownish coloring over her cheeks, nose, and forehead. The nurse can reassure her that this is a normal condition related to hormonal change, commonly called the mask of pregnancy or, scientifically:
Which statement about a condition of pregnancy is accurate?
Nausea and vomiting rarely have harmful effects on the fetus and may be beneficial.
a.Insufficient salivation (ptyalism) is caused by increases in estrogen.
b.Acid indigestion (pyrosis) begins early but declines throughout pregnancy.
c.Hyperthyroidism often develops (temporarily) because hormone production increases.
d.Nausea and vomiting rarely have harmful effects on the fetus and may be beneficial.
A first-time mother at 18 weeks of gestation is in for her regularly scheduled prenatal visit. The client tells the nurse that she is afraid that she is going into premature labor because she is beginning to have regular contractions. The nurse explains that this is the Braxton Hicks sign and teaches the client that this type of contraction:
b.Increases with walking
c.Causes cervical dilation
d.Impedes oxygen flow to the fetus
In order to reassure and educate pregnant clients about changes in the cervix, vagina, and position of the fetus, nurses should be aware that:
a.Because of a number of changes in the cervix, abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) tests are much easier to evaluate
b.Quickening is a technique of palpating the fetus to engage it in passive movement
c.The deepening color of the vaginal mucosa and cervix (Chadwick sign) usually appears in the second trimester or later as the vagina prepares to stretch during labor
d.Increased vascularity of the vagina increases sensitivity and may lead to a high degree of arousal, especially in the second trimester
Increased vascularity of the vagina increases sensitivity and may lead to a high degree of arousal, especially in the second trimester
The diagnosis of pregnancy is based on which positive signs of pregnancy? Choose all that apply.
a.Identification of fetal heartbeat
b.Palpation of fetal outline
c.Visualization of the fetus
d.Verification of fetal movement
e.Positive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test
Identification of fetal heartbeat
Visualization of the fetus
Verification of fetal movement
____________________ is when the fetus begins to descend and drop into the pelvis.
In nonpregnant women, blood glucose levels must be 160 to 180 mg/dl before glucose is “spilled” into the urine. During pregnancy glucosuria occurs when maternal glucose levels are lower than 160 mg/dl. Is this statement true or false?
Lowdermilk: Maternity & Women's Health Care 10th Edition