NCE prep 1

  1. Spiral Test
    starts with easy questions and gets harder.
  2. Cyclical Test
    test with multiple sections, questions in each section progress in difficulty.
  3. Test Battery
    collection of tests given to the same group and scored against the same standard.
  4. horizontal test
    a test procedure that covers material from different subjects
  5. vertical test
    tests on the same subject given at different levels or ages.
  6. q-sort
    tool for measuring self-esteem by choosing statement-bearing cards that are "most like me" or "least like me."
  7. Appraisal
    a variety of assessment tools including tests and surveys used to evaluate traits and behaviors.
  8. Measure
    a score assigned to a person's traits or behavior.
  9. test
    a systematic method of measuring or evaluating.
  10. Objective test items
    based on a universal standard such as multiple choice requiring little or no judgment in scoring.
  11. Subjective test items
    items such as essay questions. scoring of these items requires judgment and may reflect the scorer's bias.
  12. Projective test
    unstructured tests that may reveal basic personality, concealed feelings, and internal conflicts.
  13. Free choice test
    short answer questions that elicit subjective information.
  14. Forced choice items
    items such as true/false questions for which the test taker must recall information.
  15. percentile
    on a scale of 100, the number that shows the percent of a data distribution equal to or below it.
  16. Stanine
    • Standard Nine
    • a way of scaling test scores with nine divisions. Five in the middle with a SD of 2. The lowest scores comprise the first group and the highest scores the last.
  17. Z-score
    • a method for determining a standardized score.
    • (Score-Mean)/SD
  18. T-score
    a score with a normal distribution where m=50 and SD=10
  19. Halo Effect
    a favorable evaluation of a personality based on the perception of a single trait.
  20. Difficulty index
    in testing - the percentage of test takers who respond correctly to an item
  21. dichotomous items
    • questions that give the test taker opposing choices
    • e.g. true/false
  22. Normative item format
    unlinked items on a test
  23. Normative test
    a person's test results can be compared to the scores of others - a percentile rank can be created.
  24. Ipsative format
    • allows a person to compare two or more examples of his or her own performance.
    • Does not allow for comparison with others.
  25. Power test
    • un-timed test
    • tests mastery level
  26. Speed tests
    • timed tests
    • difficulty is more in how quickly questions can be answered than in the content.
  27. Correlation coefficient
    a measure of the linear relationship between two variables.
  28. Reliability
    • the consistency with which a test yields similar results.
    • Measured by the use of correlation coefficients.
    • Reliable does not mean valid.
  29. Intrusive measurement
    situations in which a person knows he/she is being observed - awareness can skew results.
  30. Obtrusive measurement
    • subject is unaware of observation.
    • e.g. mirrors, cameras, or records review.
  31. Validity
    degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.
  32. Face Validity
    • obvious validity
    • e.g. math questions on a math test.
  33. Content Validity
    • rational/logical validity
    • the extent to which a test represents all aspects of a subject.
    • a reflection of subject matter in test content
    • e.g. math test containing questions from a particular math course.
  34. stability
    • test-retest reliability
    • consistency of scores when taking the same test twice within two weeks.
  35. Equivalence
    correlation between different tests on the same content with the same test takers.
  36. Internal consistency
    • consistency of answers between related items within a single test.
    • Do responses from similar and opposing questions yield consistent information.
  37. Coefficient of determination
    • the square of the correlation coefficient
    • shows the common variation between two variables
    • the amount of common variance between repeated tests.
  38. Standard error of measurement
    • a test's (SD)*(sqr root of 1)-reliability coefficient
    • estimates how repeated measures of a person on the same instrument tend to be distributed around his or her “true” score.
  39. Predictive Validity
    • empirical validity
    • ability of an instrument to predict future behavior.
    • e.g. the SAT's ability to predict college GPA
  40. Concurrent Validity
    the immediate comparison of test results with results from other sources that measure the same factors
  41. Construct validity
    extent to which a testing instrument measures an abstract trait such as anxiety.
  42. When is testing useful?
    • to measure achievement
    • guide career choice
    • predict performance/success
    • to gauge a person's qualifications
  43. List reasons Counselors administer tests
    • to determine ct's needs
    • to help ct understand themselves
    • to help the co understand the ct
    • to determine appropriate methods or techniques for a ct
    • to aid decision making
    • to evaluate counseling
  44. Steps for interpreting test-scores
    • 1. Get training on test theory and read test manual.
    • 2. understand scores, profiles, and implications.
    • 3. Explain test to ct using non-technical language including reasons for the test.
    • 4. explain percentiles and technical terms.
    • 5. present results in organized manner using layman's terms. Relationships between tests should be explained.
    • 6. assist ct with integrating results and expressing reactions.
    • 7. assure ct scores are just tools not infallible limits. 
    • 8. do not rush interpretation session.
  45. Regression to the Mean
    Tendency for very high or very low scores on one measurement to be closer to the mean on the next measurement.
  46. Rating scale
    used to indicate the degree to which an attribute or characteristic exists.
  47. Sociometry
    • coined by Joseph Levy Moreno
    • a method of tracking the relationship of individuals within a group.
  48. sociogram
    a map or diagram showing the structure of the group or relationships of the members.
  49. Psychometric
    any form of mental testing
  50. Intelligence exams
    • used to measure a person's mental ability including the - 
    • Stanford-Binet
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and 
    • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
  51. Achievement Tests
    • measures learning and are often given in schools at particular grade levels. 
    • e.g. Illinois State Achievement Test (ISAT)
    • General Education Development (GED)
  52. Aptitude test
    • ability tests
    • used to measure one's ability to master skills or acquire knowledge.
    • e.g. Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS)
  53. Personality Test
    • used to determine a person's personality traits. May be projective, inventories, or specialized.
    • e.g. Rorschach, MMPI
  54. Interest Inventories
    • used to determine a person's likes and dislikes.
    • e.g. Strong Interest Inventory, O*net
  55. Ethical issues in testing
    • Confidentiality
    • results may stereotype ct
    • physical and digital security
    • biased results based on non-representative samples to generate the test
  56. Why is the WAIS-III better for adults?
    • Administered to individuals and does not rely on verbal skills.
    • provides scores for verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ based on 7 verbal scales and 7 performance scales.
  57. John Ertl
    • correlated intelligence and processing speed.
    • Invented an intelligence testing machine using an electrode helmet, an EEG, and a computer.
  58. Raymond Cattell
    developed theories of fluid and crystal intelligence, and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
  59. Fluid Intelligence
    • Innate at birth
    • deals with abstract reasoning
    • unrelated to experience
    • decreases with age
  60. Crystal Intelligence
    develops from acquired knowledge and skills.
  61. Arthur Jensen
    Applied IQ tests to adopted children. Believed that 80% of IQ was genetic.
  62. Robert Williams
    • African-American psychologist
    • Created an IQ test demonstrating that African-Americans can excel on IQ tests if the cultural bias is in their favor rather than toward White culture.
  63. Sir Francis Galton
    • leading pioneer in the study of individual differences. 
    • Concluded intelligence is primarily genetic and normally distributed.
  64. J.P. Gilford
    • Identified 120 factors that add up to intelligence.
    • Defined convergent and divergent thinking.
  65. Convergent thinking
    when different thoughts and ideas are combined into a single concept.
  66. Divergent thinking
    the ability to create a novel idea.
  67. Alfred Binet
    credited with creating the first IQ test. Intended to identify children in need of remediation.
  68. EMG
    • electromyogram
    • used in biofeedback training to measure muscle tension
  69. EEG
    • electroencephalogram
    • used to measure brain waves
  70. temperature trainer
    • a biofeedback-training thermometer
    • very expensive and extremely accurate
  71. EKG
    • electrocardiogram
    • electrical recording that provides information on how the heart is beating
  72. Aversive Conditioning
    the application of an unpleasant stimulus in an effort to reduce or eliminate an unwanted behavior.
  73. Systematic Desensitization
    • ct is taught relaxation techniques.
    • These are used to react to and overcome situations in a hierarchy of fears.
  74. Undecided vs. Indecisive
    undecided persons need more information to make a decision. Indecisive persons have trouble making decisions even with information.
  75. compensatory leisure theory
    leisure activities compensate for needs not met at work.
  76. Spillover leisure theory
    • leisure activities are similar to occupational ones.
    • Occupational choices "spillover" into other parts of the person's life.
  77. Career guidance
    helps a person develop skills for making decisions and acquire information about opportunities in occupations and education.
  78. Career Counseling
    works within the context of a person's values and attitudes to help him or her acquire self-understanding as well as information about careers.
  79. Savickas's view of career counseling
    • postmodern social constructivism
    • sees the counselor as a catalyst who helps clients make sense of their lives and occupations. 
    • Uses a narrative method to guide a ct in the building of a reality that fits with their social and cultural environment.
  80. Gelatt's career counseling decision model
    • 5-step decision making method
    • 1 - recognize a decision is needed
    • 2 - collect information and examine options
    • 3 - examine probability of possible outcomes
    • 4 - remember your value system 
    • 5 - make a decision
  81. Positive Uncertainty
    • Gelatt's whole-brained career theory
    • 2x4 model
    • Attitudes 1 - accept the past present and future as uncertain, 2 - be positive about uncertainty
    • Factors 1 - want 2 - know 3 - believe 4 - what you do
  82. Self-Efficacy theory
    what a person expects affects what they do, their effort, and their resilience.
  83. Career counselor competencies
    • 1 knowledge of theories, techniques, and models specific to career counseling
    • 2 individual and group skills
    • 3 ability to use assessment techniques for both individuals and groups
    • 4 knowledge of resources and trends 
    • 5 managment and leadership skills
    • 6 ability to coach
    • 7 respect for and ability to work with persons from various ethnic, religious, sexual, and SES backgrounds
    • 8 supervisory skills
    • 9 understanding of ethics and legal issues
    • 10 research and evaluation skills
    • 11 an understanding of and ability to use current technology
  84. Career Counseling Process
    • 1 establish rapport
    • 2 assessment of needs, goals, and aptitudes (may recur)
    • 3 inform ct about opportunities and resources
    • 4 ct makes a decision
  85. considerations for career transition
    • obsolete skills
    • physical and family limitations
    • life-style expectations
    • approaching retirement
    • technology
    • resume and interview skills
    • how to find a job
  86. Considerations for multicultural cts in career counseling
    • cultural values
    • discrimination and prejudice
    • stereotypes
    • relationship of career-family-community
    • technology
    • resume and interview skills
    • how to find a job
  87. Assessments relevant to Career counseling
    • aptitude
    • achievement
    • interest
    • personality
    • values
  88. TWA - theory of work adjustment
    idea that the job must fill the needs of the person and the person must fit the job; correspondence/congruence between person and work
  89. PEC
    • person environment correspondence
    • relationship between job satisfaction and an increase in productivity
  90. SCCT
    • social-cognitive career theory
    • self-efficacy influences career choice
  91. Developmental theory of career development
    • assumes career development occurs through stages over a period of time
    • holistic - recognizes interaction between person and environment
    • counselors seek to educate and increase skills and competence of ct.
  92. Father of Vocational Guidance
    Frank Parsons
  93. Development of aptitude tests was spurred by
    • military testing in the 40s
    • space race in the 50s and 60s
Card Set
NCE prep 1
prep for the NCE exam