starts with easy questions and gets harder.
test with multiple sections, questions in each section progress in difficulty.
collection of tests given to the same group and scored against the same standard.
a test procedure that covers material from different subjects
tests on the same subject given at different levels or ages.
tool for measuring self-esteem by choosing statement-bearing cards that are "most like me" or "least like me."
a variety of assessment tools including tests and surveys used to evaluate traits and behaviors.
a score assigned to a person's traits or behavior.
a systematic method of measuring or evaluating.
Objective test items
based on a universal standard such as multiple choice requiring little or no judgment in scoring.
Subjective test items
items such as essay questions. scoring of these items requires judgment and may reflect the scorer's bias.
unstructured tests that may reveal basic personality, concealed feelings, and internal conflicts.
Free choice test
short answer questions that elicit subjective information.
Forced choice items
items such as true/false questions for which the test taker must recall information.
on a scale of 100, the number that shows the percent of a data distribution equal to or below it.
- Standard Nine
- a way of scaling test scores with nine divisions. Five in the middle with a SD of 2. The lowest scores comprise the first group and the highest scores the last.
- a method for determining a standardized score.
a score with a normal distribution where m=50 and SD=10
a favorable evaluation of a personality based on the perception of a single trait.
in testing - the percentage of test takers who respond correctly to an item
- questions that give the test taker opposing choices
- e.g. true/false
Normative item format
unlinked items on a test
a person's test results can be compared to the scores of others - a percentile rank can be created.
- allows a person to compare two or more examples of his or her own performance.
- Does not allow for comparison with others.
- un-timed test
- tests mastery level
- timed tests
- difficulty is more in how quickly questions can be answered than in the content.
a measure of the linear relationship between two variables.
- the consistency with which a test yields similar results.
- Measured by the use of correlation coefficients.
- Reliable does not mean valid.
situations in which a person knows he/she is being observed - awareness can skew results.
- subject is unaware of observation.
- e.g. mirrors, cameras, or records review.
degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.
- obvious validity
- e.g. math questions on a math test.
- rational/logical validity
- the extent to which a test represents all aspects of a subject.
- a reflection of subject matter in test content
- e.g. math test containing questions from a particular math course.
- test-retest reliability
- consistency of scores when taking the same test twice within two weeks.
correlation between different tests on the same content with the same test takers.
- consistency of answers between related items within a single test.
- Do responses from similar and opposing questions yield consistent information.
Coefficient of determination
- the square of the correlation coefficient
- shows the common variation between two variables
- the amount of common variance between repeated tests.
Standard error of measurement
- a test's (SD)*(sqr root of 1)-reliability coefficient
- estimates how repeated measures of a person on the same instrument tend to be distributed around his or her “true” score.
- empirical validity
- ability of an instrument to predict future behavior.
- e.g. the SAT's ability to predict college GPA
the immediate comparison of test results with results from other sources that measure the same factors
extent to which a testing instrument measures an abstract trait such as anxiety.
When is testing useful?
- to measure achievement
- guide career choice
- predict performance/success
- to gauge a person's qualifications
List reasons Counselors administer tests
- to determine ct's needs
- to help ct understand themselves
- to help the co understand the ct
- to determine appropriate methods or techniques for a ct
- to aid decision making
- to evaluate counseling
Steps for interpreting test-scores
- 1. Get training on test theory and read test manual.
- 2. understand scores, profiles, and implications.
- 3. Explain test to ct using non-technical language including reasons for the test.
- 4. explain percentiles and technical terms.
- 5. present results in organized manner using layman's terms. Relationships between tests should be explained.
- 6. assist ct with integrating results and expressing reactions.
- 7. assure ct scores are just tools not infallible limits.
- 8. do not rush interpretation session.
Regression to the Mean
Tendency for very high or very low scores on one measurement to be closer to the mean on the next measurement.
used to indicate the degree to which an attribute or characteristic exists.
- coined by Joseph Levy Moreno
- a method of tracking the relationship of individuals within a group.
a map or diagram showing the structure of the group or relationships of the members.
any form of mental testing
- used to measure a person's mental ability including the -
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and
- Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
- measures learning and are often given in schools at particular grade levels.
- e.g. Illinois State Achievement Test (ISAT)
- General Education Development (GED)
- ability tests
- used to measure one's ability to master skills or acquire knowledge.
- e.g. Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS)
- used to determine a person's personality traits. May be projective, inventories, or specialized.
- e.g. Rorschach, MMPI
- used to determine a person's likes and dislikes.
- e.g. Strong Interest Inventory, O*net
Ethical issues in testing
- results may stereotype ct
- physical and digital security
- biased results based on non-representative samples to generate the test
Why is the WAIS-III better for adults?
- Administered to individuals and does not rely on verbal skills.
- provides scores for verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ based on 7 verbal scales and 7 performance scales.
- correlated intelligence and processing speed.
- Invented an intelligence testing machine using an electrode helmet, an EEG, and a computer.
developed theories of fluid and crystal intelligence, and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
- Innate at birth
- deals with abstract reasoning
- unrelated to experience
- decreases with age
develops from acquired knowledge and skills.
Applied IQ tests to adopted children. Believed that 80% of IQ was genetic.
- African-American psychologist
- Created an IQ test demonstrating that African-Americans can excel on IQ tests if the cultural bias is in their favor rather than toward White culture.
Sir Francis Galton
- leading pioneer in the study of individual differences.
- Concluded intelligence is primarily genetic and normally distributed.
- Identified 120 factors that add up to intelligence.
- Defined convergent and divergent thinking.
when different thoughts and ideas are combined into a single concept.
the ability to create a novel idea.
credited with creating the first IQ test. Intended to identify children in need of remediation.
- used in biofeedback training to measure muscle tension
- used to measure brain waves
- a biofeedback-training thermometer
- very expensive and extremely accurate
- electrical recording that provides information on how the heart is beating
the application of an unpleasant stimulus in an effort to reduce or eliminate an unwanted behavior.
- ct is taught relaxation techniques.
- These are used to react to and overcome situations in a hierarchy of fears.
Undecided vs. Indecisive
undecided persons need more information to make a decision. Indecisive persons have trouble making decisions even with information.
compensatory leisure theory
leisure activities compensate for needs not met at work.
Spillover leisure theory
- leisure activities are similar to occupational ones.
- Occupational choices "spillover" into other parts of the person's life.
helps a person develop skills for making decisions and acquire information about opportunities in occupations and education.
works within the context of a person's values and attitudes to help him or her acquire self-understanding as well as information about careers.
Savickas's view of career counseling
- postmodern social constructivism
- sees the counselor as a catalyst who helps clients make sense of their lives and occupations.
- Uses a narrative method to guide a ct in the building of a reality that fits with their social and cultural environment.
Gelatt's career counseling decision model
- 5-step decision making method
- 1 - recognize a decision is needed
- 2 - collect information and examine options
- 3 - examine probability of possible outcomes
- 4 - remember your value system
- 5 - make a decision
- Gelatt's whole-brained career theory
- 2x4 model
- Attitudes 1 - accept the past present and future as uncertain, 2 - be positive about uncertainty
- Factors 1 - want 2 - know 3 - believe 4 - what you do
what a person expects affects what they do, their effort, and their resilience.
Career counselor competencies
- 1 knowledge of theories, techniques, and models specific to career counseling
- 2 individual and group skills
- 3 ability to use assessment techniques for both individuals and groups
- 4 knowledge of resources and trends
- 5 managment and leadership skills
- 6 ability to coach
- 7 respect for and ability to work with persons from various ethnic, religious, sexual, and SES backgrounds
- 8 supervisory skills
- 9 understanding of ethics and legal issues
- 10 research and evaluation skills
- 11 an understanding of and ability to use current technology
Career Counseling Process
- 1 establish rapport
- 2 assessment of needs, goals, and aptitudes (may recur)
- 3 inform ct about opportunities and resources
- 4 ct makes a decision
considerations for career transition
- obsolete skills
- physical and family limitations
- life-style expectations
- approaching retirement
- resume and interview skills
- how to find a job
Considerations for multicultural cts in career counseling
- cultural values
- discrimination and prejudice
- relationship of career-family-community
- resume and interview skills
- how to find a job
Assessments relevant to Career counseling
TWA - theory of work adjustment
idea that the job must fill the needs of the person and the person must fit the job; correspondence/congruence between person and work
- person environment correspondence
- relationship between job satisfaction and an increase in productivity
- social-cognitive career theory
- self-efficacy influences career choice
Developmental theory of career development
- assumes career development occurs through stages over a period of time
- holistic - recognizes interaction between person and environment
- counselors seek to educate and increase skills and competence of ct.
Father of Vocational Guidance
Development of aptitude tests was spurred by
- military testing in the 40s
- space race in the 50s and 60s