GI1- Nutrition

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  1. What are risks for malnutrition? (3)
    age, days of anorexia/hyporexia, underlying diseases
  2. Body condition score is an assessment of __________ more than it is of __________.
    body fat; muscle
  3. What are guidelines for assigning BCS?
    • fist- feel knuckles- compare to ribs- 3/9
    • open hand- feel knuckles- 5/9
    • open hand, palm up- feel bottom of knuckles- 7/9
  4. Muscle condition score does not necessarily correlate with ________.
  5. If an animal is getting more than ________ of its calories from treats/table food, that can be cause for concern for malnutrition or unbalanced diet.
  6. How do you compare a nutrient in one diet to another (units)?
    use grams or mg per 100kcal (NOT PERCENTS)
  7. How do you calculate RER (resting energy requirement)?
    70 x BW(in kg) ^0.75 [exponential equation...always use]

    CAN use linear equation for dogs under 25kg {30 x BW (in kg) + 70}
  8. How many grams of fat per 100kcal does a diet have if it lists 18% on guaranteed analysis and has 3798kcal/kg?
    1000 x (18%/3798kcal/kg) = 4.74g/100kcal

    • Equation:
    • 1000 x chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=%5Cfrac%20%7B%25fat%7D%7Bkcal%2Fkg%7D&chs=118x86
  9. When do you need an MER factor?
    growing animals (adult animals probably don't need it unless they are working dogs/extremely active/etc.)
  10. What extra amino acid is essential for cats?
  11. What n-6 fatty acid is essential for dogs and cats?
    linoleic acid
  12. Fat provides _____ kcal/g; whereas carbs and protein provide ______ kcal/g.
    9; 4
  13. What extra n-6 fatty acid is essential for cats and not other species?
    arachadonic acid
  14. What should you give for an omega-3 fatty acid supplement if so desired?
    fish oil (not flax)
  15. Components of dietary carbs that resist enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.
  16. What are the components of total fiber in a diet?
    soluble and insoluble (must look at ingredients to determine soluble fiber; crude fiber in analysis is only an estimate of insoluble fiber)
  17. What is a beneficial product of fermentation of fiber?
    short-chain fatty acids
  18. What are the fat-soluble vitamins? (4)
    A, D, E, K
  19. What type of vitamins can cause toxicity and why?
    fat-soluble vitamins are more likely to cause toxicity b/c they are stored in fat; water soluble-vitamins get urinated out when in excess so don't build up
  20. What species require vitamin C?
    guinea pigs and primates
  21. What groups establish guidelines for nutrients contents in pet food diets?
    AAFCO (association of american feed control official), NRC (national research council)
  22. What matters on a pet food label? What doesn't?
    • Does- AAFCO statement
    • Doesn't- Ingredient list, guaranteed analysis
  23. What life stages can be claimed on a pet food label? Which one cannot?
    • Can- growth, adult maintenance, gestation/lactation, all life stages
    • Cannot- senior
  24. Ingredients on a label are listed by ________; this is why...
    weight; meat will usually show up lower on the ingredients list.
  25. What is the definition of a by-product?
    non-rendered, clean parts of the carcass (liver, kidney, lungs, spleen- NOT feathers, hair, hide, hooves, intestines)
  26. When an ingredient is listed as "meat", this is implying...
    it is skeletal muscle tissue (by-product is organ muscle tissue).
  27. What is the ferrous sulfate additive?
    iron supplement
  28. What is the alpha tocopherol additive?
    Vitamin E
  29. What is the pyridoxine hydrochloride additive?
    Vitamin B6
  30. What are BHT and BHA?
    synthetic antioxidants (preservatives)- completely safe
  31. Pregnant dogs shouldn't gain weight until...
    the last trimester (this is when you should switch to a higher calorie food- last few weeks, glucose demand increases).
  32. Pregnant cats should gain weight...
    linearly throughout pregnancy.
  33. What is the highest nutritionally demanding life stage?
  34. What are the 3 phases of nutrition during growth?
    nursing, weaning, post-weaning
  35. What is necessary to do with puppies during nursing?
    weigh every day or every other day- should gain 5% per day during first 4 weeks
  36. What should you do during the weaning period of puppies?
    start watery solid food at 3-4 weeks and slowly reduce water content
  37. When can puppies be weaned to solid food?
    5-7 weeks old
  38. How long should you feed a diet appropriate for growth?
    at least 1 year; large/giant breed- up to 15 months
  39. What is the most important aspect of feeding large/giant breed puppies?
    do not fed a diet with excessive calories and calcium (avoid developmental orthopedic disease)
  40. Why are senior diets a hoax?
    there are no set requirements per AAFCO for nutrients- all senior diets are different and all senior pets have different requirements, so are overweight, some are healthy, some have chronic illness, etc.
  41. What are the negative consequences of pets being overweight? (4)
    source of inflammatory cytokines, skin disorders, respiratory compromise, increased risk for DM and orthopedic dz
  42. Food intake will need to be adjusted after what life event?
  43. What can you do if a young/growing animal gains too much weight? (4)
    switch to lower calorie diet (still for growth), reduce or eliminate other calorie sources, increase caloric expenditure (doesn't make a big difference), maintain intake until animal "grows through it"
  44. Don't switch a growing animal to an adult diet until __________.
    skeletal maturity
  45. How do you calculate ideal body weight from BCS?
    each BCS is ~10-15%: IBW=BW x BCS

    • ex. 68# dog with BCS 7/9
    • IBW= 68# x 0.7= 47.6#
  46. What are your options for calculating how many cal an animal needs to lose weight?
    • 1- reduce current intake by 20% (requires accurate estimation of current intake)
    • 2- calculate RER for estimated IBW
  47. What are the only 3 terms that have any legal meaning with regard to caloric density of a food?
    Light, Lite, Low-Calorie
  48. What is the absolute minimum protein for dogs and cats (grams per 100 kcal)?
    • dogs- 6.0g/ 100kcal
    • cats- 8.9g/ 100kcal

    [really try to stay way above this]
  49. When animals need calorie restriction less than ________ for IBW, you must consider...
    80% of RER; macronutrient intake (esp. protein) [avoid deficiencies].
  50. When on a weight loss diet, ________ of total daily intake should be from ___________.
    90-95%; complete and balanced weight loss diet
  51. What is the obesity paradox?
    overweight or obesity can predispose to disease; however, once a chronic wasting disease is diagnosed, obesity may improve survival. [animals with chronic illness should not be put on extreme weight loss plans]
  52. How much weight should an animal lose per week while on a weight loss plan?
    veterinary therapeutic diet 1-2% BW loss per week; normal diets 0.5-1% per week
  53. After reaching goal weight, what are your options? (2)
    continue feeding weight loss diet and increase calories by 5%; transition to OTC weight maintenance diet
  54. What is dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs?
    dogs fed raw diets/specific jerky treats--> hyperthyroidism secondary to consumption of thyroid tissue--> resolves when diet discontinued
Card Set
GI1- Nutrition
vetmed GI1
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