A&P ch 11

  1. multiple flattened nuclei inside cell membrane
    muscle fiber
  2. is sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth or rough ER
    smooth ER
  3. 3 types of myofilaments
    • 1) thick filaments
    • 2) Thin filaments
    • 3) elastic filaments
  4. Myocin and actin are callled ___ because they do the work of shortening the muscle fiber.
    contractile proteins
  5. Tropomyosin and troponin are called ___ because they act like switches to determine when the fiber can contract and when it can't.
    regulatory proteins
  6. what are other names for light and dark striations of muscle
    • dark: anisotropic
    • light: isotropic
  7. one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it are called a ____
    moror unit
  8. Nerve action potentials lead to action potentials in muscle fibers.  This is known as
  9. action potentials on the sarcolemma activate myofilaments are known as
    excitation-contraction coupling
  10. RMP and peak voltage of a nerve fiber.
    -90mV RMP, PEak +75mV
  11. Decrease in tension, muscle returns to resting length as Ca2+ returns to SR occurs in the:

    A) relaxation phase.
  12. what 7 factors influence the contraction strength of twitches
    • intensity
    • frequency
    • Ca concentration
    • length-tension relationship,
    • temp,
    • PH and
    • hydration
  13. name the type of muscle contraction that results from gradually more strength of contractions, caused by each stimuli arriving before the last wave recovered?
    Incomplete tetanus (wave summation) .
  14. Type of muscle contraction where the muscle has no time to relax, and twitches fuse into smooth, prolonged contractions.
    complete tetanus
  15. the type of contraction that maintains joint stability and posture is called a ___ contraction
    a) Isotonic
    b) isomeric
    b) isomeric
  16. type of contraction that creates tension while shortening- concentric, and tension while lengthening-eccentric.

    a) isomeric
    b) isotonic
  17. ____ enables cells to produce ATP without the need for oxygen, but the ATP yield is very limited, and the process generates lactic acid.

    A) anaerobic fermentation
    B) aerobic respiration
    A) anaerobic fermentation
  18. ___ produces far more ATP and no lactic acid.  It's also the best known pathway for glucose oxidation.

    A) anaerobic fermentation
    B) aerobic respiration
    B) aerobic respiration
  19. ____ energy
    –myokinase transfers Pi from one ADP to another ® ATP
    –creatine kinase transfers Pi from creatine phosphate to make ATP
    - provides most of the energy for short bursts of intense activity.

    C) Immediate energy
  20. _____ energy
    Anaerobic fermentation (glycogen-lactic acid system) takes over–produces ATP for 30 - 40 seconds of max. activity–muscles obtain glucose from blood & stored glycogen

    C) short-term emergy
  21. The following describes ____ energy
    Aerobic respiration needed for prolonged exercise. After 40 sec. of exercise, respiratory & cardiovascular systems deliver enough oxygen for aerobic respiration. O2 consumption rises and reaches steady state (after 3-4 min)

    C) long term energy
  22. ___ oxidative, twitch-fibers:
    –more mitochondria, myoglobin & capillaries–adapted for aerobic respiration, resistant to fatigue
    –respond slowly (100 msec/twitch)
    –soleus (of the calf) & postural muscles of the back
    a) slow oxidative, slow-twitch fibers
    b) fast glycolytic, fast-twitch fibers
    a) slow oxidative, slow-twitch fibers
  23. ___
    –rich in enzymes for phosphagen & glycogen-lactic acid systems
    –sarcoplasmic reticulum releases & reabsorbs calcium quickly
    - quick contractions (7.5 msec/twitch)
    –gastrocnemius & biceps brachii

    a) slow oxidative, slow-twitch fibers
    b) fast glycolytic, fast-twitch fibers
    b) fast glycolytic, fast-twitch fibers
  24. How much ATP does aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration,  make
    • aerobic respiration: 36 ATP
    • anaerobif fermentation/glycogen): 2ATP
Card Set
A&P ch 11
A&P ch 11