9th Grade - Roman Empire

  1. What is a Republic?
    A state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
  2. What continents made up the Roman Empire?
    Asia, Europe and Africa.
  3. What benefits did Rome acquire as a result of all of their conquests?
    The Roman Empire included most of what would now be considered Western Europe. The empire was conquered by the Roman Army and a Roman way of life was established in these conquered countries. The main countries conquered were England/Wales (then known as Britannia), Spain (Hispania), France (Gaul or Gallia), Greece (Achaea), the Middle East (Judea) and the North African coastal region.
  4. How was art and architecture in Western Civilization affected by Roman influence?
    Roman art was more realistic compare to Greek art which was more focused on beauty and idealization.  Much Roman art was practical in purpose and intended for public education.   Colorful Roman-style mosaics, and frescoes can be found throughout Western Civilization.  Roman architecture, especially their aqueduct style (arches and domes) has greatly influence architectural style in Western Civilization.
  5. What effect has Roman influence had on laws in Western Civilization?
    Roman law dealt mostly with strengthening the rights of Roman citizens.

    • Principles of Roman Law which have been adapted by Western Civilization include:
    • - All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law.
    • - A person was considered innocent until proven guilty.
    • - The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused.
    • - Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
  6. Roman influences on government in Western Civilization included...
    In 509 B.C. Rome developed a form of representative government...

    This government greatly influenced the United States democracy...
  7. What are some Roman influences on Science and Engineering?
    The Colosseum was one of the greatest feats of Roman engineering and a model for the ages.

    Many large public buildings, such as the U.S. Capitol and numerous state capitols, include Roman features.

    • Roman roads were also technological marvels... many lasted into the Middle Ages. 
    • Because Roman architectural forms were so practical, they have remained popular.
  8. The Latin language, the language of the Romans had a huge influence on Western Civilization....
    Latin remained the language of learning in the West long after the fall of Rome.  It was the official language of the Roman Catholic Church into the 20th Century.

    Half the words in the English language find their roots in Latin words.
  9. How has Western Civilizations literature been influence by Roman literature?
    Roman writers promoted their own themes and ideas (although they found inspiration in their Greek neighbors.)

    The Roman poet, Virgil, spent 10 years writing the most famous work of Latin literature.. the Aneid.  (The Aneid praised Rome and Roman virtues.)  In it he speaks of government as being Rome's most important contribution to civilization.
  10. What were some of the social issues that led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
    • - Decline in interest in public affairs
    • - Low confidence in empire
    • - Disloyalty, lack of patriotism, corruption
    • - Contrast between rich and poor
    • - Decline in population due to disease and food shortage
  11. What were some of the Political issues that led to the decline of Rome?
    • - Political office was seen as a burden, not a reward
    • - Military interference in politics
    • - Civil war and unrest
    • - Division of empire
    • - Moving of capital to Byzantium
  12. What were some of the Economic problems that led to the decline of Rome?
    • - Poor Harvests
    • - Disruption of trade
    • - No more war plunder
    • - Gold and silver drain
    • - Inflation
    • - Crushing tax burden
    • - Widening gap between rich and poor and increasingly impoverished Western Europe
  13. How did the expansion of military and morale effect the decline of Rome?
    • - Threats from northern European tribes
    • - Low funds for defense
    • - Problems recruiting Roman citizens; recruiting of non-Romans
    • - Decline of patriotism and loyalty among soldiers
  14. What religious issues added to the fall of the Roman Empire?
    • One of the many factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire was the rise of a new religion, Christianity. The Christian religion, which was monotheistic ran counter to the traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic (many gods).
    • At different times, the Romans persecuted the Christians because of their beliefs, which were popular among the poor. 
    • In 313 C.E., Roman emperor Constantine the Great ended all persecution and declared toleration for Christianity.
    • Later that century, Christianity became the official state religion of the Empire. This drastic change in policy spread this relatively new religion to every corner of the Empire.By approving Christianity, the Roman state directly undermined its religious traditions. Finally, by this time, Romans considered their emperor a god. But the Christian belief in one god — who was not the emperor — weakened the authority and credibility of the emperor.
  15. How did a lack of development in technology add to the fall of the Roman Empire?
    • Another factor that had contributed to decline and fall of the Roman empire was that during the last 400 years of the empire, the scientific achievements of the Romans were limited almost entirely to engineering and the organization of public services.
    • They built marvelous roads, bridges, and aqueducts. They established the first system of medicine for the benefit of the poor. But since the Romans relied so much on human and animal labor, they failed to invent many new machines or find new technology to produce goods more efficiently. They could not provide enough goods for their growing population.
    • They were no longer conquering other civilizations and adapting their technology, they were actually losing territory they could not longer maintain with their legions.
Card Set
9th Grade - Roman Empire
Roman influences on Western Civilizations