Nutrition 1 Exam

  1. What is the definition of Naturopathy?
    A system of healthcare that encourages and promotes the body's natural self-healing mechanisms using an eclectic approach
  2. What does allopathy mean?
    This describes drugs and surgery used by conventionally trained medics
  3. What does polypharmacy mean?
    The use of more than 4 medications, also refers to unnecessary and excessive prescriptions
  4. Define the term 'wellness'
    ‘Wellness’ is defined as a state of health, characterised by a positive emotional state
  5. In Chinese terms, something that is yang is ______.
    Warm or hot (warming properties)
  6. In Chinese terms, something that is yin is _____.
    Cool, cold, or cooling in property.
  7. What typically denotes Ayurvedic medicine?
    In Ayurvedic medicine the 5 elements manifest themselves in the human body as three doshas:

    • Vata - air, ether principle: governs movement; represents dryness, cold, light,
    • agitation, movement, etc.

    • Pitta - fire and water principle:controls metabolism;represents bodyheat,hot,light,
    • anger, hate, etc.

    • Kapha - water and earth principle: provides physical structure; represents lubrication,
    • stability, oily, cold, heavy, forgiveness, etc.
  8. What are the 5 elements?
    • Wood
    • Fire 
    • Earth
    • Metal
    • Water
  9. Define the term 'chemistry'
    Chemistry is the study of matter and all the interactions that take place within matter.

    Matter is everything around us that has mass and occupies space.
  10. Atoms contain _____, ______, and ______.
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  11. What does the Hippocratic oath promise?
    To abstain from doing any harm
  12. Define the term 'palliation'
    Making a disease (or its symptoms) less severe without removing the cause - they do not cure (i.e. pharmaceutical drugs often palliate)
  13. What is the macrobiotic diet?
    Postulates that health can be achieved by balancing your diet with foods that are closest to the balance point of yin and yang.
  14. What are the 3 doshas in Ayurvedic Medicine?
    • 1) Vata - air / ether
    • 2) Pitta - fire and water
    • 3) Kapha - water and earth
  15. In Ancient Greek Medicine, what are the Four Elements called?
    • 1) Sanguine (blood)    - air
    • 2) Phlegmatic (water)  - water
    • 3) Melancholy (yellow bile)    - fire
    • 4) Choleric (black bile)   -earth
  16. What is the definition of an 'element'? (Chemistry)
    An element is a substance made up of just ONE TYPE of atom so it cannot be split up into simpler substances.
  17. What are the four major elements that make up the human body?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen

    (All make up 96% of the human body)
  18. What forms the nucleus of an atom?
    Protons and Neutrons
  19. Fill in the blank:

    _______ holds a positive charge and a mass of approximately 1.
  20. Fill in the blank:

    _____ holds NO charge and a mass of approximately 1.
    Neutrons- think "N" for "Neutral", "N" for "NO CHARGE"
  21. Fill in the blank:

    ________ are negatively charged particles that buzz around the outside of the nucleus, creating an electron cloud. They have virtually no mass at all.
  22. In chemistry, how do you work out the "Mass Number"?
    Mass Number = Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons
  23. What is an isotope?
    Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.

    They differ in atomic mass.
  24. What particles make up hydrogen?
    • One proton
    • One electron

    NO Neutrons
  25. If an atom gives up or gains electrons to stabilise its outer shell, it becomes ______.
    An ion.
  26. When electrons are removed from an atom or molecule this process is called ______.
  27. What happens when something is reduced? (Chemistry)
    It GAINS electrons, resulting in an increase of energy of that molecule
  28. When oxidation and reduction reactions happen together, it is known as a ______ reaction.
  29. What is a free radical?
    Free radicals are molecules or compounds that have an unpaired electron in their outer shell.

    Because they want to stabilise their outer shell they become destructive and steal electrons from other stable molecules - 'oxidation'.

    • This leaves the attacked
    • molecule with an unpaired
    • electron, so a chain reaction
    • of oxidative damage occurs.
  30. How do free radicals develop within the body?
    • Aerobic Respiration
    • Metabolism
    • Inflammation
    • The environment (pollution, sunlight, strenuous exercise, X-rays, smoking, alcohol)
  31. What are antioxidants and how do they work?
    • Antioxidants consist of a group of vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals
    • and enzymes that work to neutralise free radicals before they harm our
    • bodies.

    • Antioxidants work by donating an electron to the free radicals to convert
    • them to harmless molecules.
  32. What is the definition of a molecule?
    A group of atoms bonded together in a specific arrangement e.g. H20
  33. What is an ionic bond?
    When one element donates some of its electrons to another
  34. What is a covalent bond?
    When two elements share electrons so that they both have the 'magic' number that they are looking for
  35. What is a hydrogen bond?
    • This is the attraction between the hydrogen
    • and a negatively charged atom - a hydrogen bond :)  --- *Note: occurs in water!
  36. Water serves as the medium for most chemical reactions in the body - TRUE or FALSE
  37. TRUE or FALSE:

    Fats dissolve easily in water
    • FALSE:
    • Fats are made up of hydrophobic molecules that contain non-polar covalent bonds - so they do not dissolve easily in water
  38. What is an electrolyte?
    An electrolyte is a substance that can conduct electricity when dissolved in a solution, such as water.
  39. Why are electrolytes important?
    • Conduction of electricity is important for nerve and muscle function
    • They exert osmotic pressure important for water balance
    • Some can act as 'buffers' in acid-base balance
  40. How do you work out the atomic number of an element?
    Atomic Number = Number of Protons
  41. What is an acid?
    A substance that releases a high amount of hydrogen atoms when released in water. (DONATES HYDROGEN)
  42. What is a base?
    A base is a substance that binds to hydrogen ions in a solution. (PICKS UP HYDROGEN)
  43. What is the pH scale and how does it work?
    The number of hydrogen ions in a solution is a measure of acidity.

    Hydrogen ion concentration is measured using the pH scale, to assess on a scale of 0-14 whether something is acid or alkaline (basic).

    0 is considered highly acidic, 7 is neutral, and 14 is highly alkaline (basic).

    • The body has to maintain optimal pH concentrations for certain
    • reactions to take place.
  44. What are the 4 states of matter?
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
    • (Plasmas)

    • Matter moves from one state to another when acted on by physical
    • forces such as pressure or temperature
  45. What is an endothermic reaction?
    An endothermic reaction is one that takes in heat to use for energy
  46. What is an exothermic reaction?
    An exothermic reaction releases heat into the environment
  47. What is glycogen?
    Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose which functions as the primary short term energy storage.

    • It is made primarily by the liver and the muscles
  48. Give 3 functions of carbohydrate:
    • 1) Energy – Carbohydrates are a primary fuel for energy production.
    • 2) Stored energy - The can also provide a limited form of stored energy
    • e.g. glycogen
    • 3) Fibre – Indigestible carbohydrates such as cellulose are an important
    • source of fibre needed for proper bowel function
  49. How are fats (lipids) moved and transported around the body?
    • To move around the body, lipids are often bonded to a protein to make them more soluble. They are then called lipoproteins.

  50. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Which 4 elements are they made up from?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
  51. How many amino acids are ESSENTIAL? (i.e. cannot be made in the body and must be consumed within the diet)
    9 Essential Amino Acids

    There are 20 amino acids in total - the other 11 are considered non-essential)
  52. TRUE OR FALSE: nucleic acids are the largest molecule in the body.
    TRUE (i.e. DNA and RNA)
  53. What are the building blocks of nucleic acid?
  54. Define the term 'vitamins'
    • Vitamins: organic compounds required by the body in small amounts for normal metabolic
    • functions.

    They cannot be manufactured by the body - thus they are essential.
  55. What are the two classes of vitamins?
    • Fat soluble (A, D, E and K)
    • Water soluble (B vitamins, Vitamin C)
  56. Although Vitamin D can be manufactured by the skin when exposed to sunlight, what is the richest dietary source of the vitamin?
    Oily fish (i.e. sardines, salmon, tuna)
Card Set
Nutrition 1 Exam
nutrition exam