A task or issue that is perceived as being provocative, threatening, stimulating or a matter open to debate. The issues arise from challenges can often cause alternative views to be expressed, usually in a peaceful manner, but some issues may be extreme or polarised
A state of disagreement caused by the percieved or actual opposition of needs, values and interests between people. Georgraphically, it is often about opposing views about the ways in which a resource may be developed or used. The result is negative tension between the parties involved. A conflict can result in disagreement, harsh words, armed conflict or even war.
- This is a sense of belonging to a particular group or geographical area where there are the same generic chacteristics often characterised by ethnicity, language and/or religion
- Found on national, regional, local scales
What is nationalism?
Patriotic feelings or principles which results in loyalty and a sense of national consciousness which may go so far as to lead a group of people to believe that they are superior to other groups
Name a conflict that is rooted in a nationalist scale
- Vietnam war
- North+South Korea
What is regionalism?
Consciousness of, and loyalty to, a nation or a distinct relation which a population that shares similarities resulting in a common sense of purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express that identity and shape collective action within a geographical group
name a conflict that is rooted in a regional scale
What is localism?
Preference for a particular place. Rarely manifests itself in a political sense. It can be demonstrated as 'nimbyism' which occurs when people are reluctant to have their local area affected by development for the national good
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes and habitual behaviour patterns shared by a population or society
An area of land under rule of a leader or state in which one has certain rights or for which one has responsibility with regard to a particular type of activity
What is MENA?
Acronym for the Middle East and North Africa region. Extending from Morocco to Iran making up approx. 6% of the total world population
Name the four stages of conflict
- 1. Conflict avoidance
- 2. Assertive
- 3. Action
- 4. Armed conflict
How is conflict dealt with in stage 1?
Issue put forward and discussed in a peaceful manner from a non-bias perspective with the aim for all parties to seek a consensus. This may take many months.
What is the aim of holding peaceful discussion?
to resolve issues without physical violence or a third party
What are examples of conflicts in stage 1?
Whether oil drilling should happen in antarctica, which involves the discussion of world leaders as the land is not owned by any state. The debate is between whether it should be left as a scientific site or be used to as a resource
Whether or not British children should be taught sex education as a GCSE, which was discussed in parliament and decided against as sex is 'not an academic subject, but a personal matter'
What are the characteristics of a conflict at stage 2?
- When an issue is presented to a larger public group to gain support, such as organising a demonstration
- Seeking of political power to get involved in issue
- Drafting of legislation to resolve issue and reflect majority's beliefs
What are examples of conflicts at stage 2?
- Student protests against increasing tuition fees in London in November 2010
- 300,000 people protesting in Rome against gay marriage after it was legalised Italy
What are the characteristics of a conflict at stage 3?
- Taking direct action, which may be violent
- Using a third party to resolve disputes
- Use of legal systems to impose a solution
What is an example of a conflict at stage 3?
Scottish independence referendum
What are examples of conflicts at stage 4?
- Syrian conflict
- Israel vs Palestine
What are the characteristics of a conflict at stage 4?
- Violent, armed conflict
- May be on an international scale
- Takes a long time to resolve
- Little effective communication between opposing groups
- Civilians caught up in conflict