INST 263

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  1. what is the most common material used
    stainless steel
  2. stainless steel is the ________
    preferred material
  3. characteristic of Stainless Steel
    • strength 
    • durability 
    • resist rust and corrosion
  4. define stainless steel
    an alloy or a mixture of metals made from iron orea
  5. what is carbon used for
    provides the hardness
  6. disadvantage of carbon
    enhances the negative effects of rust and corrosion
  7. What element is used to boost resistance
    • nickel 
    • chromium
  8. How is stainless steel graded
    • type 
    • series
  9. what are the type types of stainless steel used
    • 300 series 
    • 400 series
  10. Characteristic of Austenitic Stainless Steel
    • non-magnetic
    • cannot be heat hardened
    • high level of chrome and  nickel content
  11. Austenitic Stainless Steel is used for
    • produce utensils: basins, carts and tables.
    • selection of surgical instruments: heavy-duty retractors, speculums and dilators.
  12. Characteristic of Martensitic Stainless Steel
    • magnetic
    • can be heat hardened
    • at risk to staining, corrosion and damage by chemicals 
    • Low nickel content
  13. What is the benefit of 400 series in cutting devices
    an maintain asharper edge due to the high carbon content.
  14. Martensitic Stainless Steel is used for
    • Scissors
    • needle holders
    • chisels
    • osteotomes
  15. List the Metal Grading
    • disposable 
    • ward grade 
    • mid-grade
    • Or grade
  16. Characteristic of Disposable
    • low grade
    • inexpensive
    • one time use
  17. Characteristic of Ward Grade
    • low cost
    • good for up to 20 or 30 uses
    • non-invasive
    • not worth repairing or sharpening
  18. Ward grade is also know as
    • floor grade 
    • general grade
  19. Disadvantage of general grade
    transfer rust and corrosion by contactto higher-grade metal instruments
  20. what must you do what low grade and high grade instruments
    Lower grade instruments should beprocessed separately from higher-grade metal instruments.
  21. Characteristic of Surgical Grade
    • finest stainless steel and metal alloys.
    • 10 years
    • worth the cost of repair
    • expensive
    • invasive surgical procedure
  22. Characteristic of Titanium
    • strong
    • lightweight
    • resists corrosion
    • cannot be magnetized
  23. Advantage and Disadvantage of Titanium
    • helps reduce any fatigue
    • Expensive 
    • Not material for cutting device, cannot hold edge
  24. why is Titanium is used for implants in orthopedic procedures
    joining with bone and other tissue.
  25. Titanium is used for
    • delicate microsurgical devices
    •  implantables.
  26. what is the hardest steel used
    Tungsten Carbide
  27. how to identify Tungsten Carbide
    Gold-plated finger rings or handle tips
  28. what are the differences between soldered and welded
    • soldered can be separated from the instrument and replaced 
    • Welded cannot be separated and are not replaceable
  29. Tungsten carbide is often used for
    special inserts
  30. Scissors made with tungsten carbide inset blades are
    • very durable
    • stronger cutting edge
  31. what is atraumtic
    minimal damage
  32. what kind of Detergents and lubricants are used for TC and why
    pH neutral because alkaline and acid solutions can cause damage
  33. The 8 Step Instrument Manufacturing Process
    • die 
    • forging 
    • milling and grinding 
    • assembly 
    • heat hardening 
    • fitting 
    • polishing and finishing 
    • testing
  34. what is passivation
    a chemical bath that builds up a protective oxidized layer
  35. Ebony finish
    matte black finish to reduce light refraction
  36. Satin finish
    dull silver or matte finish
  37. Mirror finish
    shiny finish, resistant to staining
  38. Mirror finish is fro
    lower grade instrument.
  39. Teflon finish
    smooth finish with a high temperature resistant coating
  40. Ceramic finish
  41. how to identify ceramic finish
    dark bronze surface and gold-plated screws
  42. Multi-coloured metallic finish
    identify titanium metal
  43. seven distinctive function-specific uses
    • To cut or incise and dissect
    • To retract and expose
    • To grasp, hold, clamp and occlude
    • To dilate or probe
    • To cannulate, suction, aspirate or drain (Frazier Suction)
    • To inject or infuse (Veress Needle)
    • To suture or ligate
  44. How to test for corrosion and rust
    pencil eraser
  45. Staining Prevention
    • Separate devices into particular sets.
    • Use appropriate detergents
    • Use appropriate manual and/or mechanical cleaning.
    • Rinse instruments with distilled water
  46. Specialty scissors called
    Supercut or Microgrind
  47. what are Supercut or Microgrind
    • superior cutting ability
    • one razor sharp cutting edge and one serrated cutting edge
  48. how to specially scissors
    black-coloured finger rings
  49. Purplish-black stains are an indication of:
    Exposure to detergents containing ammonia
  50. Ceramic blade inserts allow for a sharper edge than stainless steel. (T/F)
  51. The passivation layer on stainless steel instruments deteriorates with regular use and sterilization. (T/F)
    False – The passivation layer actually improves with regular use and reprocessing.
  52. The correct set of a pair of scissors should fall completely closed when tested. (T/F)
    False – The blade should close between 1/2 way to 1/3 of the way to the tips of the blades.
  53. Hemostat forceps are measured from the proximal tip of the jaw to the distal tip of the ring handle. (T/F)
    False – the jaws are distal and the handles are proximal.
  54. A good supply of equipment and personnel guarantee high quality processing of instruments. (T/F)
    False – A quality control system must be put in place for quality assurance.
  55. Instruments are immersed into a chemical bath followed by polishing in a process called ___________ which creates a passive protective outer layer that improves with regular use and sterilization.
  56. To determine if a brown or orange discoloration is a stain or corrosion, rub an ____ over the discoloration.
  57. Instruments in high demand for repetitive surgical procedures that are given high priority for processing are termed _________ items
  58. The key components of powered instruments include:
    • The controls
    • power supply
    • hand piece
    • accessories/attachments
  59. A reciprocating saw hand piece uses a:
    Forward and backward action
  60. Different types of rotary hand pieces include all of the following designs except:

    a) An osteotome hand piece
    b) A power irrigator hand piece
    c) A K-wire driver hand piece
    d) A drill reamer hand piece
    An osteotome hand piece
  61. The collet assembly is located at the:
    Working end of the hand piece
  62. The following statements are true of tool attachments except:
    a) Burrs, drill bits and reamers are especially prone to harboring gross soil.

    b) Flexible reamers cannot be processed through the ultrasonic cleaner.

    c) A quick coupling device is used to connect tool attachments to the hand piece.

    d) Drill bits, burrs and reamers usually require scrubbing with a firm bristle brush.
    Flexible reamers cannot be processed through the ultrasonic cleaner.
  63. what is  a powered instrument
    instruments with moving parts that are driven by sourcesother than manual operation
  64. four basic components of powered surgical instruments
    • Power supply
    • Hand piece
    • Controls
    • Accessories and/or attachments
  65. three power source
    • battery 
    • electric 
    • pneumatic
  66. Facts about Battery power
    • direct current 
    • recharged prior to sterilization 
    • does eliminate the need for a hose or cordwhich provides for easier handling within the surgical field.
  67. before sterilization battery power supply must
  68. Facts about electric
    alternate current (plug-in )
  69. Pneumatic
    medical grade compressedair, carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed dry nitrogen
  70. why is important to have accurate pressure settings
    • pressurization may cause damage to the hose greatly reducing its life.
    • Under pressurization will reduce the performance of the device and ultimately cause it to malfunction.
  71. two types of motorized hand pieces
    • single purpose
    • modular design
  72. define single purpose hand piece
    one specific function- linear motion or rotary motion
  73. define modular hand piece
    interchangeable motorized modules
  74. Most hand pieces incorporate
    collet assembly
  75. where is collet assembly located
    distal end(or working end)
  76. Collet assembly
    used to lock instrument accessories/attachments in position.
  77. Most powered devices are designed to use a variety of accessories that include:
    • power hose, cable or battery pack
    • quick coupling device
    • Tool attachments
  78. power hose, cable or battery pack
    used to connect the power sourceto the hand piece.
  79. quick coupling device
    used to connect working end attachments ortools to the collet assembly on the hand piece.
  80. Tool attachments – come in two basic variations; _______________ which are designed to _______________ and _________which are designed to function in a ______________
    • saw blade attachments 
    • linear motion 
    • rotary attachment 
    • circular motion
  81. Rotary attachments include
    • drills bits 
    • burrs 
    • reamers
  82. drill bits is for
    for preparing screw holes in bone
  83. burrs is for
    shaping or tunnelling through bone
  84. reamers is for
    forming, enlarging or shaping holes on the surface areas of bone.
  85. Types of Saw hand Pieces
    • reciprocating saw hand piece
    • oscillating saw hand piece
    • sagittal saw hand piece
    • sternal saw hand piece
  86. reciprocating saw hand piece –
    uses a forward and backward action ina vertical plane to cut bone.
  87. oscillating saw hand piece –
    uses a windshield wiper action at a 90°angle to the hand piece to cut bone.
  88. sagittal saw hand piece
    – cuts bone with a side-to-side action in linewith the hand piece.
  89. sternal saw hand piece
    reciprocates with a footplate guard to prevent unwanted damage while cutting the sternum or breastbone
  90. Types of Rotary Hand Pieces
    • drill reamer hand piece
    • trauma drill hand piece
    • K-wire driver hand piece
    • power irrigator hand piece
    • dermabrader hand piece
    • dermatome hand piece
  91. drill reamer hand piece
  92. trauma drill hand pieces
    to prepare screw holes using drill bit attachments
  93. K-wire driver hand piece
    used to place pins in bone instead of screws
  94. power irrigator hand pieces
    used for power flushing of surgical site
  95. dermabrader hand piece
    used to abrade or reshape skin surfaces
  96. dermatome hand piece
    used for slicing layers of skin
  97. what can't you do with motorized had pieces
    immersed in a liquid solution and thereforemust be manually cleaned.
  98. The three basic external components for all flexible endoscopes include the
    • control head/body
    • insertion tube
    • light guide connector
  99. The Videoscope:
    a) transmits images from the proximal end directly to the monitor

    b) transmits images to the monitor by way of tiny fibreoptic cables

    c) uses a special external attachment to transmit images to a video monitor

    d) transmits images directly to a monitor using a camera at the distal end
    transmits images directly to a monitor using a camera at the distal end
  100. The transmission of light is part of the working system
    image system
  101. The following steps are needed to facilitate effective cleaning of internal channels except:

    a) extend the brush beyond the distal end

    b) inspect the integrity of the cleaning brush

    c) retract the brush out of the proximal end

    d) inspect the internal surfaces prior to brushing
    inspect the internal surfaces prior to brushing
  102. The process of safely handling flexible endoscopes does not include

    a) keeping the device in a loosely coiled position

    b) handling the device by the body while protecting the distal tip 

    c) transporting the device in a towel-lined protective container

    d) handling the light guide connector while protecting the proximal tip
    handling the light guide connector while protecting the proximal tip
  103. A flexible Cystoscope is used to visualize the urethra and bladder
  104. A dry leak test has failed if a steady stream of bubbles is detected from the channel opening.
  105. The terminals in the Light Guide Connector of the Videoscope are not waterproof.
  106. The irrigation channel is used for the passage of endoscopic instruments. (T/F)
  107. The Channel System of the flexible scope is used to manipulate the distal tip for optimal viewing of the anatomical site. (T/F)
  108. the type of flexible endoscopes
    • fiberscopes 
    • videoscopes
  109. How does the fiberscopes transfer the image
    use the fibre optic to transfer the image to the eyepieces
  110. what is the other name for fibrescope
    non-video flexible endoscope
  111. what is the different between the the two type of scopes
    the eyepiece
  112. how does the videoscope transfer the image
    image to the monitor using a camera
  113. Flexible endoscope external part
    • control head or body 
    • intersection tube
    • light guide connector
  114. summary of the Flexible endoscope  external parts
    • Control head or body contain the angulation control handle that control the distal end and the air, water, suction and biopsy port channels
    • Insertion tube grossly contaminated Distil end houses the electrical chip for the videoscope The four working system are housed
    • Light guide connector contains the ports ( suction, water, air and CO2) and connect to the light source not waterproof à must be covered
  115. Flexible endoscope internal system
    • mechanical system 
    • image system 
    • channel system 
    • electrical system
  116. summary of the internal system of Flexible endoscope
    • Mechanical system/ Angulation system ᴸ control the distal tips
    • Image system ᴸ transmit light and images by fibre optic, electronics and system of optical lenses
    • Channel System ᴸ made up of many channels
    • Electrical system ᴸ uses electrical components to help the mechanical and image system
  117. what is the biospy port
    pass instrument needed for a procedure
  118. what is the important thing to remember when insertion thing in the biopsy port
    damaged instruments/tool can cause damaged to the internal surfaces
  119. define bending section
    last several inch of the insertion tube
  120. define distal end
    • Located at the very end of the bending section
    • Houses the terminal end of the channels nad lens covering
  121. what must be notes of the distal end
    always protect being handling or transporting
  122. light guide connector must alwasy what and why
    must be covered by a cap before cleaning because it is not waterproof
  123. what is the main purpose of flexible endoscope
    • diagnosis 
    • treatment
  124. accessories for endoscopic procedure are divided into two basic types of
    • diagnostic procedure
    • therapeutic procedure
  125. The three main external components of the rigid endoscope are:
    Eyepiece, rigid tube and light post and adaptor
  126. What is the primary purpose of the rigid endoscope?
  127. Which of the following is an example of a rigid endoscope
  128. What method of sterilization is used to sterilize rigid endoscope

    Peracetic acid
    Ethylene bicarbonate
    Hydrogen peroxide
    Hydrogen peroxide
  129. The process of safely handling rigid endoscopes includes which one of the following?

    1) Keeping the device in a loosely coiled position

    2) Handling the device by its body while protecting the distal tip

    3) Transporting the device by the distal tip

    4) Handling the light guide connector while protecting the proximal tip
    Handling the device by its body while protecting the distal tip
  130. Rigid endoscopy is limited to viewing areas accessible on a straight line. (T/F)
  131. Broken fiberoptics will appear as white spots when looking through a rigid endoscope. (T/F)
    False: They will appear as black spots.
  132. Part of the internal components of a rigid endoscope include a system of lenses, which includes the ocular lens system and the lens train. (T/F)
  133. The rigid endoscope irrigation channel is used for the passage of end(T/F)
    False: There is no such channel
  134. A dry leak test must be performed on rigid endoscopes before performing the wet leak test. (T/F)
    False: There is no leak tests performed
  135. Rigid Endoscope
    limited to viewing anatomical site that are assessible on a straight-line basic only
  136. Rigid Endoscope external parts and explain
    • Eyepiece – proximal end for viewing site
    • Rigid Tube – houses the internal components and used for insertion
    • Light post and light post adaptor – connect to the light source
  137. Rigid Endoscope internal parts and explain
    • System of lenses (ocular lens system) – a series of lenses along the tube that carry the image from the objective lens system back to the eyepiece
    • Fibre optic fibres – runs through the body carrying the light form the light source to lighten up the site
  138. Rigid Endoscope come in _____, _______, _____
    lengths, diameter and lens viewing angles
  139. the key part of a video camera
    • Cap 
    • lens component 
    • machine end
Card Set
INST 263
Module 1 - Module 5
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