Atmospheric pressure decreases .5 psi per ____ per ft of evevation
Apparatus with front or rear intakes should be angled towards the curb ___ deegrees or less
Centrifugal pumps have no positive blockage between the intake and discharge side.
The Pressure governor functions by controlling engine speed when it senses excess pressure.
Older systems do not exceed ___ psi engine pressure when supplying the FDC
Rise pressure in a standpipe/sprinkler system in ___ psi increments
Sprinkler/Standpipe systems are tested at
Standpipes and sprinklers don't exceed ___ psi engine pressure when supplying the FDC
Priming a pump for ___ seconds max for 1250 gpm pumps
Priming a pump for ___ seconds max for 1500 gpm pumps
One gallon of water weighs
One gallon of water contains ___ cubic inches
One cubic foot of water weighs
One cubic foot contains ___ gallons of water
One cubic foot is ___ cubic inches
A colum of water one foot high exerts a pressure of ___ at its base
One inch of mecury is equal to ___ inches of water
Relay pumping evolutions should be shut down at the scene pumper frst
HG is the symbol for what
inches of mercury
Dependable lift is ___ feet
Theoretical lift is ___ feet
Pumpers should flow 100 % capacity as ___ psi
Pumpers should flow 70 % capacity at ___ psi
Pumpers should flow 50 % capacity at ___ psi
Pumpers capacities are set at draft with ___ ft of lift through ft of hard suction
Evevating water devices typically range in height from
Industrial pumpers are built according to NFPA ___ and ___
11C & 1901
What NFPA # is the standard for automotive fire appratus
Most appratus or equipment failures can be prevented by performing routine maintinance checks on a regular basis
Exercising the volume the volume series control lever is NOT part of the daily apparatus inspection
Apparatus with tanks of MORE than ___ gal must have 2 inch tank fill line
Appratus with water tanks off 1000 gallons or LESS must have a tank fill line of at least ___ inch
PTO drives limit pump capacity to ___ gpm
Minimum pump capacity for pump design is ___ gpm
A rear mount pump is LESS safe for the driver operator
Appratus protecting structures during wild land fires should be parked OFF the roadway.
New Apparatus must be able to come to a complete stop from a speed of 20 MPH in a distance of ___ feet
The first element in learning to drive safely is a safety concious attitude.
The pressure governor functions by controlling engine speed when it senses excess pressure
Centrifugal pumps have no positive blockage between the intake and discharge sides
When operating from a hydrant with 2 1/2 or 3 " supply lines should be no longer than
Responding apparatus must stop for a loading or unloading school bus.
Apparatus with a large compliment of ground ladders but no real areal device is called
Inverters generally provide ___ watts
Vehicle mounted generators provide up to ___ watts
A midi-pumper chassis weighs ___ pounds
Pumpers with a capacity of 500gpm or less should be able to flow ___ gpm from a booster hose.
The best location for command is on the ___ of the building
A 750gpm pumper must have at least 2 ___ inch discharges
Steering wheel play should be no more that ___ degrees
The most common type of pump is the
Driver/Operator responsibilities are dictated by department ___ & ___
The section of the pump which gradually increases in cross-sectional dimension as it nears the pump discharge is
Back pressure due to elevation
If an exposed building has a sprinkler system the FD should connect to and charge the system
Portable generators generally supply ___ watts
Air horns will not work if the air pressure drops below ___ psi
The most common type of valve is the
If the main valve for a sprinkler system is shut off water will still reach the sprinkler heads
There is a one-way check valve to keep contaminated water out of the main water system
If firefighters connect to a standpipe they should remove pressure reducing valves
There is no shut off valve between the FDC and the standpipe connection
Inside/out method-buildings 6 or more stories, position the ___ ___ next to the building
Five stories or less position the ___ ___ next to the building
Hose should be pumped at pressures that do not exceed ___ % of the annual servce test
Intake hose for hydrant connection is typically ___-___ feet in length
Never connect hard suction hose to a hydrant
Firefighters should never be allowed to ride tailboard
One 1000gpm pumper should supply the FDC for every ___ sprinkler heads flowing
For drafting there should be a minimum of ___ inches of water around the strainer
First 6 months wash vehicles frequently with ___ water only
4 or 5 inch is the most common sizes of ___ supply line
Large Diameter Hose
Pumps are hydrostatically tested at ___ psi for ___ mintues
Pumps less than 750gpm capacity undergo same certification test EXCEPT FOR THE PUMPING ENGINE OVERLOAD TEST
Pumpers should be given a service test at least ___
NFPA does not require foam system testing annually but NFPA ___ requires operators to know how to perform test
NFPA 1002 is the
standard for driver operator professional qualifications
Emergency vehicles traveling the same route shouldn stay ___ -___ feet apart
Nozzle pressue for smooth bore hand line is
Nozzle pressure for smooth bore master stream is
What psi are fog nozzles operated at
Air tempature should not be above ___ degrees F during apparatus testing
1 1/2 inch hose 50 feet long full of water weighs how many pounds
There is an additional ___ % friction loss due to sinuosity or zigzagging of hose
Most accidents occur while backng
For non-emergency operation the engine should warm-up for how many minutes
3 to 5
capacity for changeover valve
Water flows through hose lines at how many feet per minute
RPM's when drafting is ___ to ___
When leaving apparatus running you should set the RPM's between ___ & ___
Daily engine start up just to check apparatus is not reccommended
Most common size water tank on a class A pumper is
Given the same size hose, if the tip size is reduced and pressure is increased but flow stays the same what happens to friction loss?
It stays the same
A pumper should have one 2 1/2 inch discharge for every ___gpm of capacity
Most accidents involving emergency apparatus happens at intersections
Oil Gage fluttering is a indication of low oil levels. Stop and check oil level
Intake gauge shows 15mmg, how much lift do you have?
15 X 1.33= 16.9 ft
Drop engine pressure to ___ psi before operating chane over valve
Air leak is the most likely the cause of not being able to draft. An intake is the most likely location of the leak.
Generally 350 gpm is the maximum amount of water that can safely flow through a handline nozzle.
What is critical velocity for a 2 1/2 hose
What is critical velocity for a 3 inch hose
Low engine temperature is bad because cold oil provides poor lubrication.
Centrifugal pumps build up pressure in the volute
Gated intake ball-valves are located to the side and slightly below the steamer intake.
According to NFPA 1901 class A pumpers must have what 3 items
Hose bed, water tank, pump
Discharge guages are calibrated to what psi
The pressure remaining on a system when water is flowing
The pressure on a system when water is not flowing
The foward velocity pressure at a discharge opening when water is flowing
If a nozzle is shut down quickly where does the water hammer go
What 3 ways is water pressure created
natural, mechanical, and chemical
What kind of pressure is created by a pump
A pressure governor works by adjusting engine RPM,s based on changes on the incoming pressure
If an engine is overheating while pumping the operator should open the auxilary engine cooler
What kind of pumping is intake to intake and is used to take advantage of excess hydrant flow
What kind of pumping is discharge to intake
What type of staging is used on incidents involving 2 or more units providing like functions
Level one staging
What type of staging is used on all multi-alarm and mutual aid calls
Level two staging
A diesel engine loses horsepower when temps are over what degree
When returning to the fire station the driver should allow engine temp to stablize before shutting the engine off
During drafting operations if your discharge pressure drops below ___ psi you should pause for a moment until pressure comes back up to avoid losing prime.
A vacum test is performed to ensure there is no air leaks in the pump
Pressure is simply forced measured in
pounds per square foot
pounds per square inch
HEad pressure is another name for back pressure created by elevation.
With the same size hose friction loss varies with the square of the velocity of the flow
With centrifugal pumps the discharge can be shut down for short periods of time without damaging the impellers from overheating
When placing the PTO into gear you should put the trunk transmission into neutral or park.
Where the flow velocity is increased to a point where there is turbulence in the entire stream and flow can't be ncreased anymore.
Riding tailboard should not be allowed
Positive displacment pumps CAN pump air
The 2 1/2 gated intake is usually located to the side and slightly below the steamer intake.
A tank fill line should be provided from the discharge side of the pump. This allows the tank to be filled without making any additional connections during drafting operations.
What is the most common reason for loss of prime
air in the pump
Discharging more water than you are taking in
noise in the pump, no ncrease in pressure when RPM's are increased, pressure gauges fluctuating, and hose stream fluctuating are all signs of what
An adapter called an INCREASER has female threads on the smaller end and male threads on the larger end
Relay pumpinng operations are determined by hose size, length of the hose lay, pumper capacity, and amount of water needed.
Start up oil pressure may be higher than normal operating oil pressure
Sudden engine temp ncrease is a sign of trouble, shut down immediately and check the problem
Fluids have no set shape and cannot be pulled or lifted but must be pushed by having pressure applied
The pressure found on a water distribution system during normal consuption demands
Normal Operating pressure.
What are the 3 main factors that influence a centrifugal pump
1. amount of water being discharged
2. speed of the impeller
3. pressure of the water as it enters the pump
Fluids have no established shape, They will conform to the shape of the vessel in which they are contained. They have very little adhesive quality and cannot be pulled or lifted. They must be pushed by having pressure applied and confined in some manner to direct the blow.
An increaser is used to attach a larger hose line to a smaller one. It has a female threads on the smaller side and male threads on the larger side.
How many feet is dependable lift
Theoretical lift is how many feet
Parallel operation is the same as volume or capacity
Relief valves eliminate excess pressure by allowing the pressure to bypass to the intake side of the pump.
Pressure governors eliminate excessive pressure by controlling engine speed (RPM's)
Pressure operation is the same as series
Triple-combination pumpers have what
A volute is a spiral, divergent chamber of a centrifugal pump in which the velocity energy given to water by the impeller bladders is converted to pressure.
Qualifications for fire appratus driver/operators can be found in NFPA 1002
The first element in learning to drive safely is to develop the proper attitude
Riding the tailboard is not safe and must be discontinued
Whenever possible, the driver/operator should avoid backing up. If needed, have one person on each side of the backing apparatus
Intersections are the most likely palace for an accident involving an emergency vehicle
The transfer valve on a two stage pump should be operated at a net pressure greater that how many psi
Additional impellers used in series are for extra high pressure
Major characteristics of centrifugal pumps include all of the fallowing
a. They will not prime themselves
b. The impeller turns
c. There is no positive blockage through the pump
The pressure gauge mounted on a pumper must be calibrated to measure 600 psi unless the pumper is equipped to supply high pressure fog streams. Compound gauges are calibrated from 0 to 30 inches of vacum on the negative side.
When pumping from a hydrant or in a relay, it is not desirable to reduce the incoming pressure below what psi
Indications of pump cavitation include all of the fallowing
1. Hose streams and pressure gauges fluctuating
2. Popping or sputtering sound as water leaves the nozzle
3. Gravel sounds comng from the pump
4. Lack of reaction on the pressure gauge to changes in the setting of the throttle.
The sequence of operations for putting a fire pump into gear and getting water into the pump will vary with
A. Local dept policies
B. Design of the apparatus
C. Type of priming devices
For stationary pumping of PTO pumps, Place the transmission in neutral
During drafting operations in order for a pumper to approach its total rated capacity, there must be a minimum of how many inches of water over the strainer.
All class A pumpers are rated to pump their capacity at how many feet of lift
Most pumps prime well between ___ & ___
1000 & 1200
Atmospheric pressure at sea level is
One inch of mercury equals ___psi or ___ feet of water
Head pressure is the same as back pressure.
How many psi for solid stream hand line
Nozzle pressure on a solid stream master stream is how many psi
Master streams are considered to be all streams with a gallon flow greater that ___ gpm
Friction loss is that part of total pressure that is used to overcome friction (or resistance) while forcing water through pipes, fitting, adapters, and fire hoses.
Ordinary sinuosity produces up to ___% friction loss
When the same size hose is used, the friction loss will vary approximately with the square of the velocity of the flow.
For a given velocity of flow, the friction loss per hose is approximately the same no matter what the pressure on the water may be.
When applying pressure on the water in a hose, there is a limit to the velocity or speed at which the stream can travel. If the velocity is increased beyond these limits, the friction becomes so great that the entire stream is agitated be restistance. The agitation causes a point of turbulence called critical velocity.
When pumping in relay, supply 20 psi residual to the intake of the next engine plus friction loss.
Standpipe systems may be wet or dry
In most standpipe systems "hose lines" are usually unlined linen hose. Firefighters should disconnect these lines and remove pressure reducing valves if they are present and use their own hose lines or nozzles.
Standpipe systems are rarely built to withstand more than 225 psi
Fire boats are most suited for pumping through large master stream devices and providing additional water to on shore operations
A closed, curved tube that when pressure is applied to open end of tube it will tend to straighten inself.
2 types of guages
A. Pressure gauge-read only positive pressures
B. Compound gauge-read both positive and negative pressures due to having bourdon tubes.
Positive displacment pumps can pump air unlike centrifugal pumps. For this reason, positive displacment pumps are used for priming pumps and centrifugal pumps are used as main fire pumps
What are 2 types of positive pumps
Piston pumps are susceptible to wear, as the pistion wears, water can escape to the intake side of the pump therefore reducing pump capacity
Rotary vane pumps are constructed with movable elements that automatically compensate for wear and maintain a tighter fit with closer clearance as the pump is used. Rotor is mounted off center in housing. Distance between rotor and housing is greater on intake side than discharge size.
Main parts of a centrifugal pump
Answer questions about making the pump operational
1. Putting the pump into gear
2. Involves parking the apparatus, putting the brake and chockes, and putting the PTO in the right position before one can pump the truck.
Engage the disengage a power take off (PTO) or front mount pump during pump and roll operations
1. full stop
2. push in the clutch
3. Place transmiission into neutral
4. Operate the push/pull PTO
5. Place drive transmisson into gear
6. Release parking brake
7. Engage clutch
1. Full stop
2. Drive transmission into neutral
3. Operate PTO
4. Place into drive
5. Release brake