GEO ch. 12

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  1. Fluvial Geomorphology
    Study of stream-related landforms and processes
  2. Hydrology
    Science of water and its properties, distribution, and circulation
  3. Alluvium
    General term for sand, silt and clay transported by running water
  4. Watershed
    local drainage unit (Ala Wai watershed)
  5. Mississippi is an example of a river basin
  6. drainage divide
    separates individual drainage units
  7. continental divide (Rocky Mountains)
    large drainage divide
  8. Interfluve
    small high region between individual stream channels that directs overland flow within a watershed
  9. 1st order streams are the smallest unit of drainage network
  10. Drainage pattern determined by
    • slope
    • differences in rock resistance
    • climatic and hydrologic variability
    • structural controls on the landscape
  11. Stream stage measured by staff gauge
    water depth above an arbitrary fixed point on or beside stream bed
  12. cross section is created if the width and depth of the stream channel are known
  13. Stream velocity depends on
    • location
    • irregularities
    • stream gradient
  14. Discharge
    describes the total volume of water transported by a stream system over a certain period of time
  15. Hydrograph
    graph of stream discharge
  16. peak flow is determine by
    amount, location and duration of rainfall
  17. flood frequency
    statistical return interval of a high water
  18. Straight channels
    • narrow high velocity located in upper reaches of watershed
    • erosion active
  19. Braided Channels
    • interlocking channels
    • steep to gently sloping
  20. Meandering Channels
    • lower reaches flat terrain
    • u shaped and actively migrate over floodplain
  21. Competence
    stream can move particles of a certain size
  22. Capacity
    total stuff stream can transport
  23. Dissolved load
    material from chemical weathering
  24. suspended load
    consists of fine grained particles
  25. Bed load includes traction and saltation
  26. streams erode through hydraulic action and abrasion
  27. cutback is active erosion
  28. nickpoint is abrupt change in stream gradient
  29. delta forms include arcuate (Nile) bird's foot
    (Mississippi) compound (Ganges-Brahmaputra) and
    estuarine (Mobile) and cuspate (Rhone)
  30. paired alluvial terraces
    produced by sudden change in base level followed by downward erosion and valley
  31. unpaired alluvial terraces
    produced by gradual change in base level that is accompanied by downward erosion and valley widening
Card Set
GEO ch. 12
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