MCAT behavioral sciences 5

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  1. michael angelo phenomenon
    self concept is made up of intrapersonal self and the ideas one has in regards to his own abilities, traits, and behaviors
  2. social actions
    acts and behaviors individuals are conscious of and performed b/c others are around
  3. social facilitation
    people do stuff b/c they know they are being watched
  4. yerkes-dodson law of social facilitation
    • people perform simple tasks that one is already good at and hinders performance of less familiar tasks
    • (i.e. pianist performs better in concert than in a practice room setting)
  5. deindividuation
    • when individuals are in a group setting, can lead to anonymity behavior
    • (when in a large group, they lose their identity)
  6. antinormative behavior
    behavior against the norm
  7. bystander effect
    individual do not intervene to help when others are present
  8. social loafing
    individuals put less effort when in a group setting
  9. identity shift effect
    individuals harmony is disrupted by the thought of social rejection, so they conform
  10. cognitive dissonance
    simultaneous presence of two opposing thoughts or opinion
  11. social interactions
    ways two or more individuals can both shape each other's behaviors
  12. group polarization
    groups make decisions that are more extreme than an individuals ideas
  13. choice shift
    behavior change of the group as a whole
  14. group think
    desire for harmony or conformity results in group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision
  15. assimilation
    individual or group behavior and culture that begin to resemble that of another
  16. ethnic enclaves
    location w/ increase concentration of one specific ethnicity
  17. Irving Janis examined 8 factors that are indicative of group thinking based on her study in which she studied the effect of extreme stress on group cohesiveness and the decisions that led to American foreign policy decisions
    • illusion of vulnerability
    • collective rationalization
    • illusion of morality
    • excessive stereotyping
    • pressure for conformity
    • self-censorship
    • illusion of unanimity
    • mindguards
  18. illusion of vulnerability factor that are indicative of group thinking
    the creation of optimism and encouragement of risk-taking
  19. collective rationalization factor that are indicative of group thinking
    ignore warning against the idea of the group
  20. illusion of morality factor that are indicative of group thinking
    the belief that the group's decisions are morally correct
  21. excessive stereotyping factor that are indicative of group thinking
    construction of stereotypes against outside opinions
  22. pressure for conformity factor that are indicative of group thinking
    pressure put on anyone in the group who expresses opinions against the group, opposite views are disloyal
  23. self censorship factor that are indicative of group thinking
    withholding of opposite views
  24. illusions of unanimity factor that are indicative of group thinking
    false sense of agreement within the group
  25. mindguards factor that are indicative of group thinking
    appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views
  26. subcultures
    refer to a group of people living in a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture in which they belong
  27. socialization
    process of developing , inheriting, and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs
  28. primary socialization
    occurs during childhood, learn acceptable actions and attitudes in society through observations of others older in the house hold
  29. secondary socialization
    • learning appropriate behaviors w/in small smaller sections of a larger society
    • (occurs outside of the home like at school)
  30. anticipatory socialization
    one prepares for future changes either in occupations, living situations, etc.
  31. resocialization
    one discards odd behavior in favor of new ones to make life change (+ or -)
  32. mores
    widely observed social norms
  33. folkways
    mores that refer to behavior that is considered polite in particular context
  34. sanctions
    penalties for misonduct
  35. deviance
    violation of norms, rules, or expectations w/in a society (jay walking or murder)
  36. stigma
    extreme disapproval or dislike of group or person based on difference from the rest of the society
  37. label theory
    labels given to people effect how one feels about themselves but how others respond to them (women and driving)
  38. differential association theory
    deviance can occur through interactions with others
  39. normative conformity
    deviance to fit in a group based on fear of rejection
  40. internalization
    changes one's behaviorto fit w/a group, primarily agreeing w/ their idea
  41. identification
    acceptance of others ideas without questioning them
  42. foot in door technique
    small request is made and then another before a large one is requested
  43. door in face technique
    • large request is made but denied, and smaller request is done.
    • smaller request is usually the actual request wanted
  44. low ball technique
    will give an initial commitment from an individual but then raise the cost of that commitment
  45. thats not all
    make an offer, before making a decision, they give you more than what was expected
  46. obedience
    changes one's behavior in response to an order from an authority figure
  47. functional attitudes theory
    attitudes serve four functions: knowledge,ego expression, adaptation, and ego defense
  48. knowledge function of functional attitudes theory
    provides organization to thoughts and experiences (consistent/stable)
  49. ego expression function of functional attitudes theory
    communicate and solidify our self identity
  50. adaptive function of functional attitudes theory
    idea that one will be accepted if socially acceptable attributes are expressed
  51. ego defense function of functional attitudes theory
    protect our self esteem and justify actions we know are wrong
  52. learning theory
    attitudes are developed through diff forms of learning
  53. elaboration likelihood model
    separates individuals based on their processing of persuasive info
  54. central route processing
    deep thinking about info, scrutinize its meaning and purpose, and make conclusions based on this thought
  55. peripheral route processing
    not focusing on what is being said but how the information is being said and by who (superficial items)
  56. social cognitive theory
    people learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behavior of others
  57. gemeinschaft und gesellchaft meaning and meaning of each meaning
    • community and society
    • c-groups unified by a feeling of togetherness due to shared beliefs, ancestors, and geography
    • s-groups forced b/c working toward the same goal
  58. role
    set of beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms that define expectations for those who hold status
  59. role performance
    carry out behavior associated with a certain role
  60. role partner
    person w/ whom one is interacting
  61. role set
    various roles associated w/status or referred to as
  62. role strain
    difficulty in satisfying multiple requests of one role
  63. role conflict
    difficulty in satisfying multiple roles
  64. role exit
    dumping of one identity for another
  65. peer group
    self selected organization of equals with similar interests, age, and statuses
  66. family group
    determined by birth, adoption, or marriage. Emotional ties amongst group
  67. ingroups
    a group an individual belongs to
  68. out group
    who an individual competes w/ or is opposed to
  69. reference group
    groups that establish terms by which individuals evaluate themselves
  70. interaction processing analysis
    technique for observing, clarifying, and measuring interactions within small groups
  71. system for multiple level observation of groups
    based on the belief that  there are three fundamental dimensions of interactions
  72. group conformity
    individuals comply with the group and its goals despite it not being what the individual wants for themselves
  73. group think
    members focus on ideas generated within a group
  74. network
    pattern of social relationships among individuals or a group
  75. characteristic institution
    basic organization of society
  76. bureaucracy
    rational system of political organizations, admins, discipline, and control
  77. iron law of oligarchy
    democratic of bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an elite group
  78. mcdonaldization
    shift in focus toward efficiency ,predictability, calculability an control in these societies
  79. 5 impression management strategies
    • self disclosure
    • managing appearances
    • ingration
    • aligning actions
    • alter-casting
  80. self disclosure impression management strategies
    giving info about oneself to establish an identity
  81. managing experiences impression management strategies
    using props, appearance, and associations to create a positive image
  82. ingratiation impression management strategies
    using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over
  83. aligning actions impression management strategies
    making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses
  84. altercasting impression management strategies
    • imposing an identity onto another person
    • (someone calls you a mcat kid and so now you're an mcat kid)
  85. verbal communication
    • spoken language
    • written language
    • sign language
    • braille
  86. nonverbal communication
    • facial expressions
    • body language
    • gestures
    • tone of voice
    • eye contact
    • personal space
  87. self presentation
    display oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors
  88. basic model of emotional expression
    emotional expression involves a # of components (facial, behaviors, postures, etc.)
  89. appraisal model
    there are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced but no cognitive anecdote to emo expressions
  90. social construction model
    no biological basis for emotions based on experiences and situation context
  91. display rules
    control expectations of emotions
  92. cultural syndrome
    shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors among members of the same culture that are organized around the same theme
  93. authentic self
    who the person is +/- attitudes
  94. ideal self
    who we would like to be under optimal circumstances
  95. tactical self
    what we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others expectations of us
  96. dramaturgical approach
    using the metaphor of the theatrical performance to describe how individuals create image of themselves in various situations
  97. front stage
    actor is in front of an audience and perform according to the setting and role in order to give the image he wants others to see
  98. back stage
    when the actor is not observed, he's free to act in ways he wouldnt want others to see him
  99. communication
    ability to convey info by speech, behavior, or signals
  100. animal communication
    any behavior of one animal that affects the behavior of another
Card Set
MCAT behavioral sciences 5
behavioral sciences chapter 8 and 9
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