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  1. Supernatural beings that do not have human origins include
    gods and spirits
  2. ____ are individualized supernatural beings, each with a
    distinctive name, personality, and sphere of influence that encompasses the
    life of an entire community or a major segment of the community
  3. ____ are less powerful than gods and usually are more
  4. Frequently, spirits are collections of nonindividualized
    supernatural beings and are not given
    specific names and identities
  5. Rituals are often directed toward superhuman beings – to
    placate, praise, or make requests
  6. Nonindividualized and individualized spirit examples
  7. More focused on particular individuals, families, or groups of

    Spirits live in the human world

    They often exhibit complex personalities

    One can ask for their assistance
  8. ___, ____, and ___ will promote the development of a beneficial relationship between people and the spirit world
    Offerings, entertainment, and attention
  9. An important element in many Native American cultures is direct
    contact with
    supernatural beings and supernatural power
  10. Vision Quest:
    An individual enters into an altered state of consciousness, makes contact with the world of spirit beings, and receives a gift of supernatural power
  11. Supernatural power can be attained from the guardian spirits in
    visions and in dreams
  12. The Qur’an tells of God’s creation of three types of conscious
    humans made from clay, angels made from light, and jinn made from fire without smoke
  13. Jinn are normally invisible, but they can make themselves visible, in doing so they often take the form of
    a human or an animal
  14. The Hofriyati recognize three types of jinn:
    white, black and red
  15. The red jinn, called ____, are associated with blood and fertility and they are capable of causing illness
  16. Spirit possession occurs when a ___ enters the body of a woman
  17. One common activity of demons, is
    demonic possession
  18. Incubi:
    Male demons who have sex with humans while they sleep
  19. Succubae:
    Female demons who have sex with humans while they sleep
  20. Gods are personalized individuals with
    names, origins, and specific attributes
  21. Gods are ______, that is, they resemble people in their physical appearance and personalities
  22. Within a particular religious system, the gods as a collective make up a
  23. Creator gods:
    Are responsible for the creation of the physical earth and the plants and animals that live on it
  24. Otiose gods:
    Creator gods who create the world and then withdraw from active interactions with the world
  25. A common form of supernatural being found in cultures in many
    diverse areas is the
  26. The imagery that is used for gods, such as their anthropomorphic
    nature, is take from
    social categories and statuses
  27. Robin Horton suggests that supernatural beings function to extend
    the realm of
    social relations
  28. The Yoruba cosmos is divided into two realms: _____, heaven or
    sky, and ____, the earth, the realm of the living
    • Orun
    • Aiye
  29. Some scholars believe that early human religions centered on
    ___, a lunar cycle as opposed to a solar one, and the ___
    • fertility
    • worship of goddess
    Worshiped for thousands of years in Mesopotamia; seen as both invincible in battle and a source of fertility, she was one of the paramount national deities
    Women occupied a relatively favorable position in ancient Egyptian society, and the pantheon contained many prominent goddesses, including Isis

    • She was probably the most important deity of the Egyptian
    • pantheon for the average Egyptian
  32. ___ was associated with family; her most common representation
    was as a mother, seated, suckling her son Horus on her lap
    The divine in its fierce form
  34. Polytheistic:
    Religions that recognize many deities
  35. Monotheistic:
    Religions that believe in one god
  36. Omnipotent:
  37. Omniscient:
  38. Omnibenevolent:
  39. For Christians, Jesus became the mediator between
    humans and God
  40. The Trinity:
    God, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
  41. Allah was believed to be identical to the God of the
    Jews and Christians
  42. ____ has historically meant not accepting the current
    conception of God
  43. Agnosticism:
    The idea that the question of the existence of a god is unsolvable, unprovable
  44. When anthropologists speak of _____, they generally refer to
    individuals who have an innate ability to do evil
  45. _____ is a very common belief and refers
    to the ability of a person to cause harm by means of a personal power that
    resides within the body of the witch
  46. The power of a witch is a
    supernatural power
  47. Witches personify all that is
    evil in society
  48. The Azande believe that witchcraft, or ____, is something that
    exists within the body of a witch
  49. The Azande think of all misfortune as being due to some
    supernatural agency
  50. Witchcraft is generally associated with immoral and antisocial
    behavior such as
    greed, vengeance and envy
  51. Witchcraft beliefs and accusations reflect
    interpersonal behavior between people in stressful situations and that stressful behavior is frequently a recurring situation in particular social relationships
  52. Christians redefined pagan gods and goddesses as servants of
  53. The Witchcraze began at the end of the Middle Ages and lasted for
    200 years
  54. The __ ___ says that women were more likely to be
    witches; beliefs about witches included intercourse with the Devil; and
    sixteenth-century Europe was unusually misogynistic
    Malleus Maleficarum
  55. The events of the McCarthy era and the European witch hunts both
    focused on __ and ___ and showed an intense preoccupation with loyalty
    purity and unity
  56. Changes happen in the
    climate, in the availability of food and water, and in the presence of hostile peoples on one’s borders
  57. Diffusion:
    The apparent movement of cultural traits from one culture to another
  58. Stimulus Diffusion:
    Occurs when only the idea moves from one culture to another, and stimulated by that idea, the receiving society invents a new trait
  59. An __ __ has to be altered to fit into the cultural
    system and to reflect the basic premises of the culture
    introduced trait
    When one society is dominated by another, that has more developed technology and wealth, the subordinate culture experiences changes as traits are accepted, often at a rate that is too rapid to properly integrate the traits into the culture
  61. A society that has undergone change of this type is said to be
    When the dominated society has changed so much that is has ceased to have its own distinct identity
    A fusing of traits from two cultures to form something new and yet, at the same time, permit the retention of the old by subsuming the old into a new form
  64. ____ is a religion that is found in the country of Haiti and in
    the Haitian diaspora
  65. Symbolism in the ____ (colored posters) used by
    early priests who attempted to bring Christianity to the slaves was seen as symbolic
    of the deities
  66. ___ developed in Cuba from a fusion of West African
    religions, primarily Yoruba and Spanish Catholicism
  67. Frequently, when a receiving culture is dominated, there is a
    reaction that often manifests itself as a religious or secular movement know as
    revitalization movement
  68. Another possibility is ___, which begins when an
    individual or small group constructs a new, utopian image of society and
    establishes a model of this image
  69. Nativistic Movements:
    Develop in societies in which the cultural change gap between the dominant and subordinate cultures is vast
  70. Revivalistic Movements:
    Attempt to revive what is often perceived as a past golden age in which ancient customs come to symbolize the noble features and legitimacy of the repressed culture
  71. Millenarian Movements:
    Are based on a vision of change through an apocalyptic transformation
  72. Messianic Movements:
    Believe that a divine savior in human form will bring about the solution to the problems that exist within the society
  73. The term __ __ comes from the word cargo, which in the
    pidgin English spoken in New Guinea and the islands of Melanesia means “trade
    cargo cult
  74. Revitalization Movements:
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormonism)
  75. The term neo-paganism refers to pre-Christian religious
    traditions that have been revived and are practiced in contemporary times, an
    example of
    revivalistic movements
  76. The ___, or ritual knife, and wand are commonly used to cast
    the circle
  77. Wiccan Law of Return:
    a karmalike idea
  78. Wiccan rede:
    the single moral rule
  79. Denomination:
    A new group that is still considered mainstream if it differs on just a few points from the mainstream religion
  80. ___ are even more different from the older religion than a
    denomination is
  81. Historically, ___is a particular form or system of religious
  82. New religious movement:
    researchers term for cult
  83. High demand religions:
    Are at the far end of the continuum ranging from mainstream religions to sects
  85. Believed that a team of extraterrestrial scientists, the Elohim,
    created humans in laboratories and them implanted them on earth
  86. Characteristics of Fundamentalist Groups
  87. These groups protest against, and fear, modernization in general and the secularization of society in specific
  88. Totalism:
    Is a reaction to the increasing separation of religion from other domains of life
  89. Scripturalism:
    Refers to the practice of justifying beliefs and actions by reference to religious text
  90. Traditioning:
    Religious texts are relevant to life today
Card Set
Anthro Q03
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