Final Exam

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  1. Hippolytus
    He is the son of Theseus, and the stepson of Phaedra. Artemis is the goddess that is privilege over all others. He makes Aphrodite angry by clinging to chastity and refusing to have sex like a normal Greek young man. Virginity for men was not a concept, they had to carry a male line for a patriarchy.
  2. Phaedra
    Aphrodite influenced her as a means to punish Hippolytus; she’s basically collateral damage. She is obsessed with her honor and reputation. Because she’s so concerned with her reputation, she can’t believe that Hippolytus won’t tell her husband about her feelings; rather than face that dishonor, she kills herself and leaves a note placing all the blame on Hippolytus, and exonerating herself
  3. Sophrosune
    ‘safemindedness’, or moderation; not going to the extreme in either direction. Opposite of hubris. Hippolytus thinks of it only in sexual terms, i.e. abstaining from sex and not going overboard with it. But in clinging to this virtue so rigidly as to openly insult a god, he goes to the extreme in another direction. Phaedra violates it by being too passionate over Hippolytus
  4. Nicias
    Spartans position 420 hoplites on the island of Sphacteria. Athenians defeated the Spartan navy, leaving the hoplites stranded. Spartans were desperate to retrieve the hoplites, asked for an armistice; Athenians refused. Cleon (an antiaristocratic demagogue) disparaged the Athenian generals for not being able to capture the hoplites, especially Nicias (conservative, aristocratic)
  5. Alcibiades
    Ward of Pericles, student of Socrates, rival of Nicias (hawk vs dove). The wild card. Became general in 420 (a year after the Peace was signed). 415: Encouraged the formation of the Sicilian expedition
  6. Aegospotami
    • Alcibiades’ luck doesn’t last; he leaves one of his friends in charge at Notium with orders not to engage the Spartans; the friend messes up and Alcibiades is blamed, has to leave Athens again. Lysander (Spartan general) becomes good friends with the son of the Persian king; gets subsidies from him to build up a Spartan base at Lampsacus,Athenians station their fleet across the channel at Aegospotami.Alcibiades tries to warn them; but no one trusted him.
    • Spartans crush the Athenian fleet
  7. Thirty Tyrants
    Sparta-installed oligarchic government of Athens 404-403. 30 Athenian citizens sympathetic to Sparta. Abolished the Assembly, appointed new council of five hundred antidemocrats. Put to death the rich and famous, confiscated their wealth (at least 1500 were executed). Many fled Athens, neighboring city-states were sympathetic. Overthrown by rebels after 13 months. Amnesty between Athens and Sparta
  8. Dissoi logoi
    Means Two fold argument. FOr any issue only opposing arguments can be made. Was brought on by the Sophistic movement. Used with the argument of likelihood. An example is if a bigger man is accused of beating a smaller man.
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Final Exam
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