Bio 130 Chp. 18

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  1. Nonliving particles with nucleic acid genomes that require the assistace of living cells to reproduce.
    Vruses and viroids
  2. What was the first virus discovered?
    Tobacco Mosaic Virus TMV
  3. THis is the number of species and cell types that can be infected.
    Host range
  4. What is the basic structure of a virus?
    Capsid (protein coat) w/DNA or RNA. Some have a viral envelope from host cell plasma membrane.
  5. What is the viral reproductive cycle?
    Attachment, Entry, Integration, synthesis of viral components, viral assembly, and release.
  6. Some viruses can integrate their genomes into a host chromosome. Prophage or provirus is is inactive for long periods.
    Latentcy ot lysogeny
  7. Describe the lysogenic cycle.
    Integration, replication, and excision
  8. Describe the lytic cycle.
    Synthesis, assembly, and release.
  9. There are two ways that viruses can be latent in humans. describe.
    1. Integrated into host genome and remains doirmant. (HIV) 2. Episomes that replicate independently and occasionally integrate into host dna ( herpies)
  10. These are composed solely of a single-stranded circular RNA molecule a few hundred nucleotides in length. Infect plant cells. Some replicate in host cell nucleus and others in chloroplast.
  11. Composed of proteins. Disease causing conformation PrPSc. Normal protein expressed at low levels on surface of neurons. Comverts normal proteins to abnormal form.
  12. Where are the genes of bacteria found?
  13. Region on bacteria where tightly packed beacterial chromosome are found.
  14. Describe the bacterial chromosomes.
    Double stranded dna, circular, tend to be shorter, and primarily structural.
  15. Typical bacterial chromosomes must be compacted about?
    1000 fold
  16. Bacterial is not wound around _______ to form nucleosomes.
    Histone proteins
  17. DNA supercoiling is done by what?
  18. Small, circular pieces of DNA that exist independently of the bacterial chromosome. Occur naturally in many strains of bacteria and in a few types of eukaryotic cells, such as yeast
  19. plasmid that can integrate into bacterial chromosome
  20. What are the five types of plasmids?
    Resistance plasmids (R factors), Degradative plasmids, col-plasmids, virulence plasmids, and Fertility plasmids (F factors)
  21. These plasmids confer sesistance against antibiotics and other types of toxins
    Resistance plasmids (R factors)
  22. These plasmids enable the bacterium to digest and utilize an unusual substance.
    Degradative plasmids
  23. These plasmids encode colicines, which are proteins that kill other bacteria.
  24. These polasmids turn bacterim into a pathogenic strain.
    Virulence plasmids.
  25. These plasmids allow bacteria to mate.
    Fertility plasmids (F factors)
  26. How to bacteria reproduce?
    Binary fission not mitosis.
  27. Unless a mutation occurs each daughter cell contains an ___________ of the mothers cell.
    Identical copy of genetic material
  28. What are the three ways that bacteria replicate?
    Conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
  29. This is direct physical interaction transfers genetic material from donor to recipient cell.
  30. DNA released from dead bacterium into the environment and is taken up by another bacteria.
  31. A virus transfers genetic information from one bacterium to another.
Card Set
Bio 130 Chp. 18
Chapter 18
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