HEDU 4300 final exam

  1. What are the steps in the Scientific Method, and what happens at each step
    step 1: identify problem; step 2: research the area, primary and secondary sources; step 3: identify hypothesis/research question, form question based on what learned in step 2; step 4 research design; step 5 collect data; step 6 analyze data; step 7 findings and conclusions
  2. What are the three types of quantitative research? How do I know which one to use
    Descriptive (current conditions), correlation (relationship), Experimental (differences, effects)
  3. What are the two main levels of data
    continuous, categorical
  4. What do the terms target population mean
    entire group of people of interest from which sample will be selected
  5. What do the terms sample mean
    a subgroup of the target population that will hopefully participate in our research
  6. What is meant by a representative sample
    sample should be similar to the population on the characteristics of interest (think back to research question
  7. What does the term generalization mean
    The results can generalized to the population your studying
  8. What is the difference between random (or probability) sampling and non-probability sampling
    random sampling is when all participants have an equal chance to be selected
  9. What are the five sampling techniques discussed class
    simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, convenience sampling
  10. simple random sampling is
    uses random selection, every person has equal chance, selection of one person doesn’t interfere with selection of another (put names back in hat after pick)
  11. Stratified random sampling is
    divide the population into specific subgroups, or strata, based on a critical characteristic. A set number of research participants are randomly selected from each strata. (can do this proportionally or equally)
  12. Cluster sampling is
    sampling unit is a naturally occurring group or clusters of members of the population, instead of sampling individual members you randomly select the clusters
  13. systematic sampling is
    sample is drawn by choosing every kth person from a listing of the population (make sure the list is made up randomly)
  14. convenience sampling is
    include any participants who are readily available and accessible (not random)
  15. When it comes to questionnaires, what is meant by validity and reliability
    Validity: when questionnaire is measuring what is intended to be measured; Reliability: questionnaire measures consistently each time it is used
  16. What are the three ways to establish validity (as discussed in class)?
    • content-related: experts in field review questionnaire
    • construct related: use stats approach to be sure I am measuring the construct of (whatever) the whole construct and nothing but the construct
    • criterion-related: uses two questionnaires. take questionnaire and use stats approach to determine if it correlates with certain criterion (something that theoretically, resilience should be able to predict – like optimism) the take questionnaire and determine using a stats approach if it can distinguish between resilience and something very different (like defeatism)
  17. What are the two ways to establish reliability (as discussed in class)?
    • -  alpha reliability: using stats approach to examine each item on the questionnaire compared with the other items on the questionnaire (most common one)
    • -  test-retest reliability: use statistical approach to examine day-to-day stability of the questionnaire by correlating day 1 scores with day 2 scores (time lapse on this one students take one day and then another day and scores should correlate)
  18. What do the terms statistics mean
    values, quantities calculated using info obtained from a sample
  19. What do the terms univariate statistics mean
    involves individual variables (meaning one) descriptive statistics are this kind of stats (used to describe and summarize the characteristics of the data from our sample
  20. What do the terms cross-sectional mean
    data collected at one point in time
  21. With what type of quantitative research can I use descriptive statistics
    all three types descriptive, correlation, experimental
  22. What is a frequency distribution
    can be used with either type of data (continuous, categorical) its an ordered listing of the scores and their frequencies
  23. What are measures of central tendency and measures of variability
    indicates those points at which scores tend to be concentrated
  24. Measures of central tendency
    mean (average), median (middle score), mode (score most frequently received)
  25. measures of variability
    • Range (difference between highest and lowest score),
    • Standard deviation (indicates amount of variability among the scores in relation to the mean and how much each score deviates from the mean);
    • quartile deviation (indicates the amount of deviation surrounding the median)
  26. What is meant by a distribution of scores
    ? if you collected continuous level data from everyone in your target population and created a graph, it would approach a bell curve
  27. What is a normal distribution
    Bell curve
  28. What is meant by kurtosis
    degree of peakedness
  29. What are the two types of kurtosis
    leptokurtic (majority of scores in the middle); platykurtic (scores spread out smaller cluster in the middle
  30. What is meant by skewness
    many scores on one end of the scale and progressively fewer on the other end
  31. What are the two types of skewness
    negative (few low scores), positive (few high scores)
  32. What type of descriptive statistics can I use if I have categorical data
    frequency distribution, visually display
  33. What type of descriptive statistics can I use if I have continuous data
    frequency, measures of central tendency and variability
  34. Why do we use inferential statistics
    used to make inferences from a sample to a population
  35. With what type of quantitative research can I use inferential statistics
    correlation and experimental
  36. What is a hypothesis? What is it based on
    a tentative explanation, a prediction or the outcome, an educated guess. Based on research question
  37. With what type of quantitative research would I have a hypothesis
    correlation and experimental
  38. What are the five steps in hypothesis testing
    • 1) state null and alternative hypotheses
    • 2) determine significance level – Alpha (.05) 3) choose appropriate test statistic and apply it to the data from your sample
    • 4) calculate p-value (computer does)
    • 5) compare p-value to alpha level (reject or accept null hypotheses
  39. What is meant by statistical significance
    means the results you got are probably true (not due to chance); that the results are good enough to be believed
  40. What does alpha represent
    I’m willing to accept 5% probability that my results happened by chance. which means I want to be 95% confident that my results are statistically significant
  41. What does the p-value represent
    The probability – based on the data I am actually analyzing – that my results have occurred by chance
  42. When would I reject the null hypothesis
    p-value<.05 reject null: there is a significant relationship of significant difference
  43. When would I accept the null hypothesis
    ; p-value>.05 accept null: there is no significant relationship or no significant difference
  44. What is a Type I error
    ? type I error= reject the null when it’s actually true (I see a difference between the gourps in my sample when that difference doesn’t really exist in the population);
  45. What is a Type II error
    accept the null when it’s actually false (I don’t see a difference between the groups in my sample, but that difference actually exists in the population
  46. What test statistic do I use in correlation research
    Correlation – calculates r value and p value
  47. What level of data do my variables need to be if I want to determine if a relationship exists
  48. What is the null hypothesis for a correlation
    ? null= there is no significant relationship
  49. What is the alternative hypothesis for a correlation
    alternative= there is a significant relationship
  50. What type of graph do I create to visually display the relationship between two variables
  51. What does a positive relationship look like in the graph scattergram
    positive: scores go in same direction. as one score increases so does the other or as one score decreases so does the other
  52. what does a negative relationship look like in a graph scattergram
    negative: scores go in different direction as one score increases the other decreases
  53. What does a no relationship, look like in a graph scattergram
    no relationship: no pattern
  54. What is the line of best fit in a graph
    straight line between your data points; created by minimizing the overall distance between the points and line. shows general direction that a group of data points seems to be heading
  55. What does the r-value tell you
    tells you the direction and strength
  56. What is the null hypothesis for an experiment
    ? Null: there is no significant difference
  57. What is the alternative hypothesis in experiment
    alternative: there is a significant difference
  58. What is the difference between a nondirectional alternative hypothesis and a directional alternative hypothesis?
    nondirectional= there is a difference; directional= there is a difference in a particular direction
  59. What are the four test statistics we could use in experimental research
    Independent groups t-test, ANOVA, post hoc tests; chi square, paired samples t-test
  60. When would I use an independent groups t-test
    compare 2 independent groups
  61. What level of data does my independent variable need to be in a independent groups t test
    IV categorical
  62. What level of data does my dependent variable need to be?
    DV continuous
  63. What are the two types of independent groups we discussed in class when it comes to independent groups t testing
    groups based on existing characteristics (male female); groups based on something I control (teaching method, drug treatment)
  64. When would I use an ANOVA?
    compare 3+ independent groups
  65. What level of data does my independent variable need to be? What level of data does my dependent variable need to be in ANOVA
    ? DV continuous; IV categorical
  66. What do the results of an ANOVA tell you?
    tells you there is a statistically significant difference between the three mean scores
  67. What do the ANOVA results not tell you?
    doesn’t tell you where the difference lies
  68. What do I need to do to determine where the difference lies between the three groups in my ANOVA?
    Post – hoc test
  69. When would I use a Paired Samples t-test?
    compare 2 dependent groups
  70. What level of data does my independent variable need to be? What level of data does my dependent variable need to be in a paired samples t test
    ? IV categorical; DV continuous
  71. What does it mean for groups to be dependent on each other
    think pretest postest
  72. When would I use a chi-square?
    when you have categorical data. used to determine whether significant differences exist in the number of people who are classified in the categories of the research variables
  73. What is the null hypothesis for a chi-square?
    Null: there will be no difference between expected frequencies and observed frequencies
  74. What is the alternative hypothesis in a chi square
    Alternative: there will be a difference between expected frequencies and observed frequencies
  75. What level of data do both of my variables need to be in chi square?
  76. What is the definition of ethics?
    morals, norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior
  77. Why do researchers need to be ethical?
    promotes aim of research, promote values essential to collaboration, can be held accountable to the public, promote other moral and social values
  78. What is an Institutional Review Board?
    ? examines the risks to benefits of proposed reearch studies with respect to protecting human subjects and abiding by federal regulations
  79. How do you define anonymous and confidential
    • anonymous: inability to link any research information back to the individual respondents;
    • confidential: ability of researchers to link research information back to the individual respondents but no one else can access the information
  80. What are the key elements of Informed consent?
    voluntary no coercion, fully explained expectations described, clear description of risks and benefits, statement indicating anonymous or level of confidentiality indicates who will see the individual results of the participants, participants right to ask any questions any time receive contact info of principal investigator and IRB, statement that participants can withdraw at any time with no consequences
  81. What three actions are considered by the federal government to be research misconduct?
    falsification, fabrication, plagiarism
  82. Levenes test for ANOVA
    • p < .05 you reject the null – assume variances were not equal,
    • p > .05 you accept the null assume variances were equal
  83. post-hoc test for ANOVA interpret
    • Use Tukey if equal variances assumed,
    • use Dunnett if equal variances not assumed (use Levene’s test to find out the variance)
  84. interpret the p-value for the chi-square
    If p < .05 reject the null and report that there is a statistically significant difference b/w expected frequencies and observed frequencies ( with this test you hope that the numbers are proportional – which doesn’t’ mean equal numbers at beginning it means proportionate, this is what is meant by expected frequencies)
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HEDU 4300 final exam
final exam in research class