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  1. safety
    Be familiar with activity before beginning, get approval for student designed procedures, wear appropriate clothing, do not wear contact lenses in the lab, and know the location of all safety equipment
  2. physical property
    a characteristic that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
  3. physical change
    a change in a substance that does not involve a change in identity
  4. mixture
    a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
  5. homogeneous
    uniform in composition
  6. heterogeneous
    not uniform in composition
  7. organic chemistry
    study of most carbon-containing compounds
  8. inorganic chemistry
    study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics)
  9. physical chemistry
    study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
  10. analytical chemistry
    identification of the components and composition of materials
  11. biochemistry
    study of substances and processes occurring in living things
  12. theoretical chemistry
    the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
  13. chemistry
    the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoew, and the energy chagnes that accompany these processes
  14. chemical
    any substance that has a definite composition
  15. basic research
    used for only increasing knowledge
  16. applied research
    used to solve a problem
  17. technological development
    involves the production and use of products that improve quality of life
  18. element
    pure substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical changes
  19. compound
    a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances, elements bonded chemically
  20. extensive properties
    properties that depend on the amount of a substance that is present eg. mass
  21. intensive properies
    do not depend on the amount of a substance that is present eg. melting point
  22. mass
    a measure of the amount of matter
  23. matter
    anything that has mass and takes up space
  24. volume
    the amount of three-dimensional space an object occupies
  25. chemical change
    a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
  26. noble gases
    group 18; have complete set of valence electrons (8 except He, which has 2); not reactive
  27. reactants
    substances that react with one another/energy to form product(s)
  28. products
    the results of a chemical change/reaction
  29. gas
    indefinite volume and indefinite shape; particles move very rapidly and are at great distances from one another compared with the particles of liquids and solids, meaning attractive forces have less of an effect
  30. solids
    definite volume and definite shape
  31. liquids
    definite volume and indefinite shape
  32. conservation of energy
    energy is neither destroyed nor created
  33. heterogeneous examples
    salad, clay and water mixture
  34. homogeneous examples
    salt water, sugar water
  35. metalloids
    an element that has some characteristics of metals and some haracteristics of nonmetals
  36. scientific method
    a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
  37. the two types of data
    qualitative and quantitative
  38. qualitative
  39. quantitative
  40. system
    a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
  41. hypothesis
    testable statement
  42. model
    an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related
  43. theory
    broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
  44. quantity
    something that has magnitude, size, or amount eg. volume, not teaspoon
  45. derived units
    combinations of SI base units
  46. density
    mass/volume, kg/cubic meter
  47. volume
    cubic meter
  48. length
  49. difference between weight and mass
    weight is effect of gravity; mass is regardless of gravity
  50. density of pure substances
    can be used to identify substances
  51. calculating density
  52. converting volume units
    cubic meter contains 1million cubic cm
  53. conversion factor
    a ration derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other eg. 4 quarters/1 dollar
  54. precision
    the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
  55. accuracy
    the closeness of a measurement to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
  56. percent error
    ((experimental value - accepted value)/accepted value)*100
  57. significant figures
    all certain digits plus one estimated digit
  58. significant zeros
    zeros at the end and to the right of a decimal point are significant;9.000
  59. adding or subtracting with significant figures
    highest place value significant figure in least specific number in problem is highest place value significant figure in answer
  60. multiplying or dividing with significant figures
    number of figures in number with less significant figures in problem is number of significant figures in answer
  61. inversely proportional
    one value increases as another decreases; negative slope of line if graphed
  62. Dalton's atomic theory
    matter is composed of atoms, atoms of one element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; of different elements are different, atoms cannot be divided, created, or destroyed, atoms combine to form chemical compounds, and in chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged
  63. law of definite propportions
    a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size or source of the sample
  64. law of conservation of mass
    mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
  65. law of multiple proportions
    if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elemetns, then the ration of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ration of small whole numbers
  66. modern atomic theory
    atoms can be further divided and atoms of the same element can have different masses, but atoms of the same element do share properties, and all matter is composed of atoms
  67. thomson's cathode ray tube experiment
    discovery of electrons led to by passage of electric current through a cathode which showed existance of negatively charged particles
  68. rutherford's gold foil experiment
    ernest rutherfort shot positively charged particles at extremely thin gold foil, and some were reflected, showing a positive particle in the atom
  69. rutherford's discovery of the nucleus
    rutherford reasoned based on his gold foil that the region of positive charge must have very low volume and high density because it only reflected about 1/8000 strongly
  70. nuclear forces
    forces of attraction between protons and neutrons
  71. electron
    0 amu,-1 charge
  72. neutron
    1 amu, 0 charge
  73. proton
    1 amu, +1 charge
  74. isotopes
    atoms of same elements with different atomic mass
  75. atomic mass
    number of protons in an atom
  76. average atomic mass
    the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
  77. atomic mass unit
    1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
  78. mole
    amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12
  79. avogadro's number
    the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance, 6.022*10 to the 23rd
  80. relative mass
    mass of atoms is measured relatively to carbon-12
  81. converting moles to atoms
    given/Avogadro's number
  82. converting moles to grams
    given*molar mass of element
  83. converting atoms to grams
    given/Avogadro's number*molar mass
  84. wave behavior of electromagnetic radiation
    speed of 3*10 to the 8th, frequency varies inversely proportionally to wavelength
  85. photon
    particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
  86. line emission spectrum
    a set of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted as a result of excitement of an atom's electrons
  87. Bohr's model of the atom
    electrons exist at specic energy levels, and can lose only specific amounts of energy
  88. ground state
    all electrons in the atom are at their lowest possible energy levels
  89. excited state
    electrons in the atom are at higher energy levels than their minimum energy levels
  90. Bohr's atomic theory
    when an electron absorbs energy, it moves up a level(s). when it loses energy, it moves down energy levels
  91. 4 quantum numbers
    principal, angular momentum, magnetic, and spin
  92. principal quantum number
    symbolized by n, indicates main energy level, positive integer
  93. angular momentum quantum number
    symbolized by l, indicates shape of orbital, positive integers less than n
  94. magnetic quantum number
    symbolized by m, indicates orientation of an orbital around the nucleus, values are integers from -l to +l
  95. spin quantum number
    indicates spin direction, either + or - 1/2
  96. Aufbau principle
    an electron occupies the lowest-energy level that can receive it
  97. Pauli exclusion principle
    no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers
  98. Hund's rule
    no orbital can hold a second electron until all other orbitals of the same amount of energy have at least 1 electron
  99. DeBroglie
    proposed that electrons may behave as waves
  100. wave behavior of electrons
    electron waves can exist only at certain frequencies, electrons can be diffracted and interfere
  101. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    it is impossible to determine simultaneously the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
  102. s orbital
    spherical, one per energy level
  103. p orbital
    dumbell-shaped w/ small hole, three per energy level
  104. d orbital
    5 per energy level
  105. f orbital
    7 per energy level
  106. electron configuration of ground state selenium
  107. mendeleev's contribution to the periodic table
    designed first periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass
Card Set
Honors Chemistry Final
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