difference in manner of articulation btw /ph/, /p/,/b/
- ph: unvoiced and aspirated
- p: unvoiced and unaspirated
- b: voiced and unaspirated
phonetic transcription - pay
phonetic transcription - space
phonetic transcription - bay
...are contrastive in English, example, whereas ...are contrastive in Cantonese, example; hence plosives in Cantonese contrast in ...., not in....
- /p/ and /b/ ; pay and bay
- /ph/ and /p/; 披, 悲
- aspiration, voicing
the nine voiceless sounds in English
/ p t k tʃ f θ s ʃ h /
pronunciation rules of "s" allomorphs
- әz:after /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/
- z: after voiced sounds except the above rule
- s: elsewhere
pronunciation rules of "d" allomorphs
- әd: after /t, d/
- d: after a voiced sound except /d/ (above rule)
- t: elsewhere
Cantonese tonal shape: group, number and names
- non-rising: 1364; high, high-mid, low-mid, low
- rising: 25; high,low
rising cantonese tone's corresponding PTH tones
non-rising cantonese tone's corresponding PTH tones
- 1: level(1)
- 3: falling (4)
- 6: falling (4)
- 4: rising (2)
why does mandarin speaker find CTN difficult?
- Syllables in CTN, but not in PTH, can end in a plosive.
- PTH does not have the /m/ coda.
example rule governing the use of allomorph
when there is a genitive morpheme before a word beginning wiith a voiced plosive, it is pronounced as the corresponding voiceless plosive
free vs bound morpheme
- free: carries a lexical meaning and can be used alone
- bound: appears only as a part of another word
Difference between men and women
- Women readily talk about their inner lives whereas men don't
- Women are more likely to give minimal responses .
- They often validate their friends
- Women often use the word 'exactly' or 'yeah' and nod their heads in agreement, probably with more facial expression
- there is more eye contact among women talking to each other
- men tended to be non-responsive to their friend's disclosure
- Men are better at masking their emotional arousal with neutral facial expression; their level of arousal is in fact higher than women
why can the brain process the pronunciation when male and female say it in different pitch?
because the pronunciation has the same tone
conceptual metaphors - what is it
a type of comparison, when you are using a words metaphorically, you are using a meaning that has developed from the literal meaning and has some of the same features.
conceptual metaphors - why is it important
- conceptual metaphors are embedded in our language, there are many expressions in language which expresses similar idea
- once we understand the key idea in a metaphor, for example, of talking about illness, it is easier to understand other words and phrases used for talking about illness
- metaphorical ideas affect the way we talk about things and our ways of thinking
- essential for computers to learn this to master language
how does conceptual metaphors demonstrate the productivity of language
- in the past time is abundant but as time goes by time became more valuable
- in order to express this idea, we can use the phrase 'time is money' to express that time is valuable
- hence conceptual metaphors allow us to express new ideas by comparing and connecting two things with the same feature
why is metaphor difficult for computer
- entailment are important for computers to process language
- different people can highlight different aspect of a metaphor, ie. metaphors are never exact
- in order for the computer to understand language, computers must first have knowledge of the metaphor
a - open, closed and unstressed
face, cat, attack
e - open, closed and unstressed
theme, best, selfless/escape
i - open, closed and unstressed
nice, sit, [di]vide
o - open, closed and unstressed
no, top, con[so]nant
u - open, closed and unstressed
use, sun/push, suggest
note is an open syllable but tense is closed because
two consonants, ns, before silent e
why is cantonese difficult for the computer
- because there are 4 non-rising tones and 2 rising tones in cantonese; the computer needs a tonal system (or pattern) to serve as a framework of reference.
- it is more important to recognize the tones in relative sense than in absolute sense
explain the contradiction between a common belief that women is the talkative sex and that men doing the talking in a group
silence is the desired state for women, any talk in which woman engages can be too much
explain how language shows the men's perspective
- the 'male' terms are usually created first; the female term is secondary, eg host and hostess
- widow was created first to separate and discriminate against them
- more words related to women than men in foul language
changing tone 3 in PTH
- before 3: high rising(馬尾)
- before 124:low falling(馬路)
- otherwise: falling rising
what is crazy about cantonese
- 4 non rising tones
- 2 rising tone, making a total of 3 low tones, (456)
miscommunication between men and women
- minimal responses: different meaning; women mean 'I'm listening' while men means 'I agree.'; when a female speaker receiving occasional minimal responses, he is indicating that he doesn't always agree while she thinks he's not listening
- eye contact: men doesn't always make eye contact when they listen while women often does, which leads to the women thinking that men aren't listening
- ways of giving orders
why speech recognition is needed
- control weapons by voice commands
- make monitoring voice communication easier
why Prof. Weizenbaum doesn't let a computer act as psychiatrists?
he oppose all projects that propose to substitute a computer for a human function that involves interpersonal respect, understanding and love
linguistic questionnaire - biggest difference between boys and girls
- playing computer games
- doing sports
- going to malls and shopping
common word order among different languages; two features of unmarked languages; which is the marked arrangement;
- SOV(Korean and Japanese) and SVO
- subject saliency (S before o) and VO contiguity
common arguments between men and women
- Women demand from men the same level of understanding they receive from other women
- women think men don't listen to them
why is [bh] rare
- contradiction in their articulation
- in order to produce a voiced sound, the vocal cords should be closed together, air pressure build up below the vocal cord to bring about vibrations
- in order to say an aspirated sound, the vocal cords should be wide apart so that air passes through easily
- it takes much more energy to vibrate vocal cords that are wide apart
two morphemes with one difference in pronounciation
tones 7, 8, 9 are words with coda ending with the speech sounds...
p, t, k
in PTH, æ and a are in complementary distribution, which means.....; the rule to capture the distribution is ...
- a does not appear in environments in which æ appears
- the phoneme /a/ is realized as [æ] between j and n; and [a] elsewhere.
The IPA is central to the field of .... IPA symbols are adapted to specific languages. For instance, ...
- articulatory phonetics
- [ r ] is, strictly speaking, a trill 顫音 in IPA (for the “r” in Spanish) but it has been used as an approximant in transcribing English
Based on three features, the .... is used for describing vowels: .... For example,...
- vowel quadrilateral
- open vs. close, front vs. back, and rounded vs. unrounded;
- [ y ] (as in / sy1 / “book” in Cantonese) is a close front rounded vowel, whereas [ i ] is close front unrounded
what is romanization
it is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman script
the 3 types of alphabets in Europe
Greek, Cyrillic, Latin (Georgian)
2 syllabary in Japan
Katakana (romanji) and Hiragana
describe the purpose (1) and the conclusion(2) of the face vs mobile experiment
- a blind experiment on neonatal social perception
- male babies tend to prefer the mobile, whereas female babies either have no preference or prefer the real face
- male babies looked significantly longer at the mobile than females did; the females looked longer at the real face than at the mobile
- the origin of sexual difference is biological
in the study of speech perception, it was found that ....sound; the result indicate that ....(3)
- 1- and 4- month old infants are able to discriminate the acoustic cue of the /b/ and /p/
- infants as young as 1 mont age are responsive to speech sounds
- experience has little effect in determining the perception of speech in first 4-6 months of life
- speech may be necessary to stimulate the detection of speech, but it has little effect on the catergories of speech that are perceived
in Werker and Tee's experiment, what was tested, how was it tested and what was the conclusion
- infants discrimination performance on the dental/retroflex contrast in Hindi was tested in a head turn paradigm.
- Conclusion: infants can discriminate nonnative speech sounds without relevant experience, appear to know
- the sounds of human language in general; but there is a decline in this ability, by the time babies are one year old, they can only distinguish the difference in pronounciation in their mother tongue
public speaking: stereotype that women talk a lot
- men feel more comfortable doing public speaking (report talk) while women feel more comfortable doing private (rapport talk) speaking
- in academic conference, women contributed only 27.4% when it comes to volunteering and being called on to ask questions
- men took longer when asking questions
For men, a good conversation is one with ... content; for women, getting together and telling about their feelings and lives is ....; for many women, ....is an obligation
- impersonal, factual, task focused
- at the heart of friendship
- keeping friends up to date about events in their lives
Levels of Intentionailty
- 1st level: Thinking about what he needs to do (most animal)
- 2nd level: Thinking about what other is thinking (Liying monkey)
- 3rd level: Thinking about what other is thinking aboiut another's thinking (Only human)
Chomsky says ...is more important for a child to master native language because he believes ...."In advance of experience, the child is already equipped with an understanding of the basic structure of any human language. Hence there is a fundamental invariant core to language. "This implies that .... Underlying set of characteristics that are true of all languages all over the world is called...these properties are...
- the genes has a general knowledge of language
- all languages are similar.
- Universal Grammar
The autisitc personality is ..Male to female autistic patient ratio is ...
- an extreme variant of male intelligence (extremely systematizing) and extremely not empathizing
the different language systems in the world and their features
- Alphabetic:can show how to pronounce all other language; more difficult to learn than syllabic
- syllabic:learners can learn all the syllables in very short time; the syllables may not be able to express the sounds of some lanauges, eg. Japanese syllables cannot express how some Chinese characters are pronouced
- morphemic:difficult to learn
nature VS nurture in sexual behaviour: observation
- If the baby is dressed as boy, the mother offered it male toys. She also held the baby quite far from her body and tried to be active.
- When the baby was dressed as girl, the maternal behavior changed. Rather than encouraging movements, the mother cuddled and clamped the baby close to her body. She also spoke more gently and didn't bounce it.
nature VS nurture in sexual behaviour: conclusion
- Social pressures like these responses of the parents, are important to the development of masculine and feminine behavior.
- If mother's nurturing can change so much according to the perceive sex of a child, then no longer can we tie the child's behavior solely to its genes and hormones.
Children don't acquire language by imitations
- 1. Rule governed; cannot imitate the rules, eg. Cantonese tonal systems
- 2. Adults say pyjamas, not 'jamamas' (dʒə'mɑːməz)
Children don't acquire language through learning
- Children systematically ignore the information given to them, eg. The mother corrected the child on how to pronouce pyjamas, but he still continues to say 'jamamas' (dʒə'mɑːməz)
- Parents doesn't always correct their children's mistakes; but children automatically correct themselves someday
- hide a small snoopy in a model room and ask the child to find the big snoopy in a real room with the same setting; There is no teaching of how a scale model actually represent a real thing!
Evidence to show that children brain extract linguistic rules on their own/construct linguistic system
- Urinate>The child hears "You're a nate"; The children's brain analyze the morphemes and came up with the word "nate", which is a word that doesn't exist in English.
- Some children, who have 2 words in their productive vocabulary, nonetheless, understand the order of S and O
- children over-generalize the rules: What do you think what’s in here?
Kids are thinking about things that we take for granted. The small kids are very busy ....
managerial style difference: how and misinterpretation
- women: rising intonations, asking questions, past tense, the use of 'we' instead of 'you'
- men tell people what to do in relatively direct ways. Many women misinterpret men's ways of creating their authority as overbearing
- Many men misinterpret women's ways of creating their authority as not being quite managerial.
This study is designed to measure just how strongly children feel about moving out of their traditional gender roles shows that...
Boys are are reluctant to do anything that approximates girl's play or what girls usually do
miscommunication problem get more serious when a couple ...
devote more time into the relationship
Comparison between animal communication and human language:features of human language
displacement, multi-level structure of units; rule governed, attribute of productivity
Contrastive analysis” is ... (Wikipedia) When we compare ..., we are doing contrastive analysis.
- the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities.
- tones in CTN and PTH
In Werker and Tees (1984), which is a “...study”, the same 12 babies were tested three times from 6 to 12 months of age.
In a “... study”, different age groups are involved in the experiment.
Interviews and questionnaires are examples of “...study”
Does language show a bias against women
- marked and unmarked forms
- sexist language
- marked and unmarked forms
Do women talk more than men?
- silence is the preferred state
- academic conference Q&A
- source of stereotype: rapport talk
in class questionnaire: things to do in a bad mood(boy:girls)
- cry: no boys choose
- talk about it with other people: 1:2
- doing sports: 3:1
- be alone: 81:66
differences in communicative style characterize our modern ... societies” and “the study of ... may lead to an explanation for serious communication problems
culturally diverse; conversational inference
Spoken language is an ...feature of members of a national or cultural group
There is a ...period for the acquisition of language by children