Lec 4

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  1. the conversion of one form of energy to another
  2. small local electrical charge on a receptor cell brought about by a stimulus
    receptor potential
  3. a subjective awareness of the stimulus
  4. sensory recpetors transmit 4 kinds of information
    modality, location, intensity, duration
  5. modality is
    a type of stimulus or sensation sensory receptors transmit. (taste, hearing, vision)
  6. location is
    encoded by which nerve fibers are firing (receptor field: area within which a sensory neuron detects stimuli).
  7. Intensity is encoded in which 3 ways
    • 1) which fibers are sending singnals
    • 2) how many fibers are sending signals
    • 3) rate these fibers are firing
  8. duration is
    how long the stimulus lasts
  9. 3 somatosensory projection pathways
    • 1) first-order neuron
    • 2) second order neuron
    • 3) third order neuron
  10. name 3 pain receptors
    • 1) Nociceptors
    • 2) somatic pain
    • 3) visceral pain
  11. Name a CNS modulation of pain
    endogenous opioids
  12. what's the outer layer of the eye called
    tunica fibrosa
  13. Image Upload 1
    • a) conrea
    • b) aqueous humor
    • c) lens
    • d) vitreous body
  14. Neural components of the eye
    retina and optic nerve
  15. Inner rear lining of the eye
  16. where's the blind spot
    optic dist (anterior end of optic nerve)
  17. When Lense fibers darken with age, fluid-filled bubbles and clefts filled with debris appear between the fibers.  This is called?
  18. Iris diameter is controlled by 2 sets of contractile elements
    pupillary constrictor and pupillary dialator
  19. state in which eye is relaxed and focused on an object more than 6 m (20 ft) away
  20. adjustment to close-range vision requires three processes
    • 1)convergence of eyes
    • 2) Constriction of eyes
    • 3) Accommodation of lens
  21. name a type of cell that is a first order neuron
    bipolar cell
  22. name a cell that is a second order neuron
    ganglion cell
  23. what produces visual images
    only rods and cones for this class
  24. what absorbs light and generate a chemical or electrical signal
    photoreceptor cells
  25. pupil response to light and dark
    light=constrict, dark=dialate
  26. what causes color blindness
    lack of cones sensitive to certain colors
  27. depth perception is called
    stereoscopic vision
  28. what do retinal ganglion form in the eye
    their axons form the optic nerve
  29. what form the optic radiation of fibers in the white matter of the cerebrum
    third order neurons
  30. A sensory response to vibrating air molecules_
  31. the sense of motion, body orientation, and balance
  32. 2 senses reside in the inner ear, a maze of fluid filled passages and sensory cells
    hearing and equalibrium
  33. ___ is a funnel for conducting vibrations to the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
    outer ear
  34. structure that –directs sound down the auditory canal
    auricle (pinna)
  35. –passage leading through temporal bone to tympanic membrane
    _auditory canal_(external acoustic meatus)
  36. name for eardrum
    _tympanic membran
  37. Part of the ear that Vibrates freely in response to sound
    tympanic membrane_(eardrum)
  38. –Auditory  tube connects middle-ear to nasopharynx
  39. 3 parts of the –Auditory ossicles
    Malleus, Icus, Staples
  40. what's the semicircular duct
    circular loop part of inner ear
  41. he hair bundle is composed of stiff microvilli called___  is involved with mechanoreceptionof sound waves.
  42. our sense of whether a sound is “high” or “low”
  43. the perception of sound energy, intensity, or amplitude of the vibration
  44. 1) the perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

    2) coordination, balance, and orientation in three-dimensional space

    3) perception of motion or acceleration
    1) static equalibrium

    2) equalibrium

    3) Dynamic equalibrium
  45. 1) Sensorineural (nerve) deafness is called

    2) –: conditions interfere with _transmission of vibrations_to inner ear
    • 1) Sensorineural (nerve) deafness: 
    • 2) Conductive deafness_deafness:
  46. Ottis media_
    middle ear infection
  47. little branch like things coming off the olfactory bulb
    olfactory nerves
  48. (taste)—sensation that begins with action of chemical stimulants(tastants) on taste buds
  49. –Have tuft of apical microvilli_ (taste hairs) that serve as receptor surface for taste molecules

    -what are they made of
    taste cells, made of epithelial cells not neurons
  50. –Stem cells that replace taste cells every 7-10 days are called
    basal cells
  51. –Resemble taste cells without taste hairs, synaptic vesicles, or sensory role are called
    supporting cells
  52. 5 primary taste sensations
    umami (meat) salty, sweet, sour, bitter (coffee)
  53. 2 mechanisms of action for taste
    active second-messanger system and depolarize cell directly
  54. how do we get a conscious sense of taste
    fibers reach the medula oblongata->

    hypothalamus & amygdala->


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Lec 4
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