psychology test 4 Nagmita

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  1. Changes that occur in behavior as the result of normal development and aging are referred to as
    learning
  2. UCS- Unconditioned Stimulus
    automatically elicits a response
  3. UCR- Unconditioned response
    A reflex, occurs every time UCS is presented.
  4. CS- Conditioned Stimulus
    Turns a neutral stimulus into one similar to UCS
  5. CR- Conditioned Response
    Same reaction as UCR, just due to CS
  6. The effects of learning can be observed with
    Behavior and Maturation
  7. In classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus becomes what?
    The conditioned stimulus
  8. Eliminating the paring between the CS and UCS leads to
    Extinction
  9. Extinction in Classical Conditioning
    Presenting the CS alone without the UCS
  10. Generalization
    Making the same response to different stimuli
  11. Discrimination
    Narrowing the response to a specific stimulus
  12. Systematic Desensitization
    Replaces anxiety with relaxation, Client is first taught to relax and then exposed gradually to more anxiety provoking situations
  13. Aversion Therapy
    Associating an unpleasant experience to a stimulus that formerly produced a pleasant experience
  14. Counterconditioning
    Reversing what was conditioned. Based on classical conditioning that attempts to replace bad or unpleasant adaptive responses. "un-condition"
  15. Law of effect
    Organisms tend to repeat responses that have satisfying consequences, and tend not to repeat those responses that have unsatisfying consequences.
  16. Primary reinforcers
    Naturally reinforcing, tied to biological needs like food & water.
  17. Secondary or conditioned reinforcers
    Developed reinforcing properties because they have been associated with other reinforcers( grades, money).
  18. Positive reinforcement
    Increasing frequency of a response by adding pleasant things
  19. Negative Reinforcement
    Increasing frequency of a response by taking away an unpleasant thing
  20. Stimulus Control with example
    Specific behaviors become more likely in certain settings and at certain times than others. ex. traffic signals
  21. Shaping
    Taking small steps to achieve the desired behavior
  22. Extinction in Operant Conditioning
    Response declines or stops, due the elimination of the reinforcement.
  23. A child asking his father for money only when his father is in a good mood is an example of
    Discriminative
  24. Is intelligence one of the most agreed upon concepts in the study of psychology
    no
  25. The approach to intelligence that focused on the measurement of intellectual or psychological abilities became known as
    Psychometric Approach
  26. A complex statistical technique that is used to identify the traits that make up intelligence
    Factor analysis
  27. Two factor theory of intelligence consists of
    Specific abilities and general intellegence
  28. He was hired to develop the test to identify children who were not doing well in school and thus may be in need of special Services.
    Alfred Binet
  29. What is mental age
    age level of most difficult item a child can answer correctly
  30. What is chronological age
    Actual age in years months and days
  31. What is intelligence quotient?
    mental age divided by the chronological age multiplied by 100
  32. The term used to describe how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure
    Validity
  33. What is criterion validity
    Measure test results vs. IQ
  34. What is predictive validity
    Predict something like grades
  35. Does the psychometric approach produce a clear comprehensive understanding of intelligence
    no
  36. What do products and processes refer to when it comes to intelligence testing?
    Product is simply the accumulation of bits of knowledge. Process is referred to as the ability to selectively pay attention to and process novel information.
  37. According to Robert Sternberg the fundamental unit of solving an intelligence test is called?
    Component of triadic theory
  38. What's the key part of Ann Browns theory of intelligence
    What the people with intelligence do differently than the people without intelligence.
  39. According to what theory is intelligence simply defined as the ability to process information.
    Fagan's Theory of Processing.
  40. The amount of time a baby looks at a new picture compared to a familiar one is called
    novelty preference
  41. In Vygotsk's theory what is a wide zone of proximal development
    how many hints the person needs to give the desired answer
  42. Can the negative effects of an early deprive infancy be overcome if a child is placed into a favorable and enriching environment?
    Yes it would depress intelligence but good environment can improve it.
  43. Larger family size have ____ IQ's
    lower
  44. Later-born children have ___ IQ's than early born kids.
    Lower
  45. The more adult interaction the ___ IQ
    higher
  46. 3 key concepts in the definition of development
    • Change in behavior must be systematic or ordery.
    • Change is given, natural part of life.
    • Change happens over the entire course of life.

    SYSTEMATIC NATURAL PROGRESSION
  47. Who believed that children were like tabla rasa?
    John Locke
  48. The usual age at which behaviors occur are called
    Norms
  49. Continuous development changes
    Gradual, smooth, and stable changes
  50. Discontinuous Development changes
    Sudden changes
  51. Longitudinal research design
    Same subjects over time
  52. Cross-sectional research design
    different subjects with different ages at the same time
  53. When is an ovum released in the menstrual cycle?
    14th day, midway
  54. Periods of prenatal development
    Germinal; Embryonic; Fetal
  55. Germinal Period
    0-2 weeks when sperm meets embryo, conception to implantation
  56. Embryonic Period
    All major physical structures begin to form (2-8 weeks)
  57. Fetal Period
    Develops gender, movements occur, sensory organs become functional, brain develops (8weeks- birth)
  58. Prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, facial abnormalities, and central nervous system problems are the effects of
    Fetal alcohol syndrome/ teratogen
  59. What are stages of labor and delivery are there?
    Stage1: Cervix, Stage2: hard labor, Stage3: After birth- placenta
  60. The medical test taken right after a baby is born is called
    APGAR scale
  61. What reflexes do new borns have?
    Blinking, Babinski, Grasping, Moro, Rooting, Sucking, Stepping, ATNR
  62. Can very young infants detect the basic units of sound in language called phonemes?
    yes
  63. This theory of perception assumes that information or knowlede is needed for perception
    Cognitive- Developmental
  64. What is Assimilation?
    applying an old schema to a new experience
  65. What is Accommodation?
    Adjusting an existing schema to meet the demands of the environment.
  66. 48
  67. What is the ability to keep on task?
    Attention
  68. What theory of language development says humans are born with the capacity to learn language because of a language acquisition device?
    Linguistic Theory
  69. According to Kagan, a child who shows wariness and fearfulness in a new situation may be described as having a what?
    Inhibited temperament
  70. The majority of babies in the Strange Situation show what kind of attachment to their mother?
    Secure (pattern B)
  71. Authoritative Parenting
    Control and caring, high expectations but use rewards instead of punishment, clear expectations and listens to what child has to say, provide explanations; Healthy children
  72. Authoritarian Parenting
    Demand respect, strict obedience, restrictive and controlling, using forceful techniques such as threats and punishments and no reason or explanation; Aggressive and Dependent children with unhappiness
  73. Permissive parenting
    setting a few limits, making a few demands for appropriate behavior; low on self-control children and self reliance
  74. Uninvolved Parenting
    Unattached and uncommitted to parenting, don't really talk to children; lower self-esteem, increased aggression, greater impulse
  75. Kohlberg's stages of morality
    Punishment for doing something wrong. Praise for doing something good obedience orientation.
  76. Sensorimotor stage of Piaget
    dealing with the world through actions; Object permanance; Egocentrism; Means ends behavior
  77. Object permanance
    Babies learning that objects exist even if they can not be seen
  78. Egocentrism
    thinking from one's own perspective only
  79. Means end Behavior
    Child learns that their actions have an effect in the world, helps develop goals
  80. Preoperational Stage of Piagot
    Represent the world and actions in symbols; can only focus on one thing, lack conversation.
  81. Centration
    Can only focus on one aspect of a problem
  82. Concrete Operational stage of Piagot
    Child's thoughts become more logical, dealing with what's infront of them not in the future
  83. Concrete
    Deal with what's infront of you and not the future
  84. Formal Operational stage of Piagot
    Abstract thought, if-then reasoning, hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
  85. Who proposed the two factor theory of intelligence?
    Spearman
  86. Who may be considered to be the author of the tests that serves as a model for today's intelligence tests?
    Binet
  87. The approach to intelligence that focused on the measurement of intellectual or psychological abilities became known as what?
    Psychometric
  88. According to who intelligence is simply defined as the ability to process information?
    Fagan
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psychology test 4 Nagmita
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Dr. Fry's psychology final
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