denied that Jesus had a divine nature.
opposite of Arianism, this
denied that Jesus had a human nature.
Jesus created the Holy Spirit,
but the HS is less than equal that JC & God.
yes, Jesus had a human and a
divine nature, but Mary was only the mother of
the human JC, not the divine JC.
humans can save themselves
without God’s help.
instituted reforms that enabled
the Church to gain power.
Gregory VII –
called the 1st Crusade to help rescue
the Holy Land from the Muslims
Urban II –
used spiritual & political
weapons to assert Church power. He formed
political alliances and excommunicated those
who disagreed with him.
Innocent III –
issued Unam Sanctum,
declaring papal primacy over kings & leaders
Boniface VIII –
last Father of the
Church; encouraged devotion to Mary.
Bernard of Clairvaux –
Spanish priest; founded
the Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
Dominic Guzman –
a friend of St. Francis of Assisi,
founded the Poor Clares Order for Women.
Clare of Assisi –
founded the Order of Friar
Minors; took vows of poverty, chastity &
Francis of Assisi –
Bishop of Alexandria; defend the
Nicene Creed and taught that if Jesus was not
God, then He could not be our Savior
established monasteries for women in
1st Christian monk &
Anthony of Egypt –
issued the doctrine of
hypostatic union & convinced Attila the Hun
to not invade Rome.
Leo the Great –
Patron Saint of Europe; built
famous monastery on Monte Cassino, Rome.
His Rules served as the model for monasteries.
fought Arianism and taught the
rich to help the poor.
considered the Greatest of the
Church Fathers; authored some of Christianity’
s most influential writings such as City of God
Church Father; translated the Bible
from Greek to Latin
in the year 380, he ordered
EVERYONE to become a Christian.
donated a large strip of land in Italy to
the buying and selling of spiritual
things like church offices and blessings.
the practice of giving land and
jobs to relatives.
the practice where lay
leaders would appoint bishops & kings.
Lay investiture –
doctrine which states that
Jesus in one divine person that subsists in 2
natures, both human and divine.
Hypostatic Union –
– fixed # of sacraments at
4th Lateran Council
invaded France and Spain
invaded North Africa
a series of battles called to fight the
Muslims and defend the Faith.
a period when the Catholic
Church and society were one
a system of contracts designed to
make productive use of the land while offering
protection for those who service the land.
What was the moral of the story with regard to
St. Monica and St. Augustine?
Define patriarchate, & list the 5 from your
- A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of an ecclesiastical patriarch. A patriarch, as the term is used here, is one of the highest-ranking bishops in pre-Great Schism territory.
List the 4 Conflict that resulted in the Eastern
Schism of 1054
- 1. Pope Leo condemned Canon 28 from the Council of Chalcedon.
- 2. Eastern Emperor Leo III condemned the used of sacred images (icons). Known as the iconoclast controversy.
- 3. Filioque Controversy – term means “And from the Son”, added to the Nicene Creed by the Western church. Eastern Church did not agree.
- 4. Excommunication – Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other.
List the 7 criteria contained in the Just-War
- 1. Last Resort-A just war can only be waged after all peaceful options are considered. The use of force can only be used as a last resort.
- 2. Legitimate Authority-A just war is waged by a legitimate authority. A war cannot be waged by individuals or groups that do not constitute the legitimate government.
- 3. Just Cause-A just war needs to be in response to a wrong suffered. Self-defense against an attack always constitutes a just war; however, the war needs to be fought with the objective to correct the inflicted wound.
- 4. Probability of Success-In order for a war to be just, there must be a rational possibility of success. A nation cannot enter into a war with a hopeless cause.
- 5. Right Intention-The pirmary objective of a just war is to re-establish peace. In particular, the peace after the war should excede the peace that would have succeeded without the use of force. The aim of the use of force must be justice.
- 6. Proportionality-The violence in a just war must be proportional to the casualties suffered. The nations involved in the war must avoid disproportionate military action and only use the amount of force absolutely necessary.
- 7. Civilian Casualties-The use of force must distinguish between the militia and civilians. Innocent citizens must never be the target of war; soldiers should always avoid killing civilians. The deaths of civilians are only justified when they are unaviodable victims of a military attack on a strategic target.