ClinNeuro- Cerebellar Disease

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  1. What are the normal functions of the cerebellum? (3)
    rate/range of motion, inhibitory function, input to vestibular system
  2. Clinical signs associated with cerebellar disease are related to loss of...
    control of rate and range of motion.
  3. Clinical signs associated with cerebellar disease. (7)
    tremors, cerebellar ataxia, truncal sway, hypermetria, wide-based stance, absent menace, +/- vestibular signs
  4. What signs ARE NOT associated with purely cerebellar disease? (2)
    proprioceptive deficits, paresis/weakness
  5. What can cause cerebellar hypoplasia in cats?
    panleukopenia virus (parvovirus) in utero or in the immediate post-natal period
  6. How does panleukopenia cause cerebellar hypoplasia?
    destroys the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum
  7. What is the progression and prognosis for feline cerebellar hypoplasia?
    non-progressive (doesn't get worse with time) prognosis is good for quality of life (won't regain function)
  8. What viruses can cause cerebellar hypoplasia? (5)
    pankleukopenia/parvo virus, BVDv, CDV, CHV (canine herpes), FIP
  9. How does FIP involve the brain/cerebellum? (3)
    [dry FIP] causes inflammation of the choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle (close association with cerebellum), granuloma formation, obstruction of CSF flow
  10. What 2 protozoal infections have a predilection for the cerebellum?
    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum
  11. What is Dandy- Walker syndrome?
    congenital malformation or the cerebellum seen in puppies, with absence/hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis
  12. What clinical signs are associated with Dandy-Walker syndrome? (3)
    cerebellar ataxia, tremors, absent menace
  13. What primary brain tumors have a predilection for the cerebellum? (3)
    choroid plexus tumors (compress cerebellum b/c of proximity), medulloblastomas, epidermoid/dermoid cysts
  14. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors that arise from cells present only during embryonic development of the cerebellum.
  15. How do medulloblastomas progress to affect arts of the brain other than the cerebellum?
    compression of 4th ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus
  16. How do epidermoid/dermoid cysts in the cerebellum arise?
    embryological invaginations of neuroectoderm, causing skin to become "trapped" in the neural tube
  17. Describe the onset of epidermoid/dermoid cysts.
    present at birth, but don't show signs until later in life (~4.5 years)
  18. A vascular event that affects the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum will lead to _____________.
    paradoxical vestibular syndrome
  19. What is Chiara-like malformation and syrinomyelia (CM/SM)?
    caudal occipital malformation syndrome and congenital hypoplasia of the supraoccipital bone, leading to a smaller caudal fossa and cerebellar indentation and herniation
  20. Development of fluid-containing cavities within the spinal cord parenchyma, primarily in the dorsal gray horn.
  21. What are clinical signs of CM/SM? (5)
    hyperesthia, phantom scratching, scoliosis, tetraparesis, proprioceptive ataxia
  22. Clinical signs associated with CM/SM are due to ____________, and __________ signs are almost never present.
    syringomyelia; cerebellar
  23. What are the 2 most commonly affected breeds with CM/SM?
    cavalier king charles spaniel, Buxelles griffons
  24. Describe medical management of CM/SM. (2)
    pain management (gabapentin, pregabalin, NSAIDs), decrease CSF production (Omeprazole, Furosemide)
  25. What is the prognosis of CM/SM?
    • medical management- improves quality of life, but does not stop progression
    • surgical management- temporary relief of clinical signs (cervical pain), almost 50% recur
  26. Describe surgical management of CM/SM. (1)
    suboccipital craniectomy
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ClinNeuro- Cerebellar Disease
vetmed clinneuro
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